This result contradicts an earlier finding of Green and Purohit, who concluded that the more complicated matrices led to better performance. Northwestern University, United States, Kathleen L. Hourihan, PhD Brewer, PhD The differences in long-term retention were relatively small. It is a violation of APA Ethical Principles to publish "as original data, data that have been previously published" (Standard 8.13). The persistence of first-learned associations may be responsible for the long lasting nature of odor memories. University of Kent, United Kingdom, Andrew Hollingworth, PhD In both studies, subjects participated in two daily sessions. There is one key difference, however. An alternative interpretation of the stimulus suffix effect, Nonauditory suffix effects in congenitally deaf signers of American Sign Language, Visual recognition memory for binary pictures: Another look, Recognition gradients for random shapes following distinctive or equivalent verbal association training, Associations to Odors: Interference, Mnemonics, and Verbal Labeling, Asymmetric transfer of prototype information between vision and audition, Encoding specificity: Retrieval asymmetry in the recognition failure paradigm, Recognition of random shapes followed at varying delays by attended or unattended shapes, digits, and line grids, Trade-off between memory for verbal items and their visual attributes, Rehearsal of visual and auditory stimuli while shadowing, Auditory location as an encoding dimension, Conditional gradient displacements: The effects of conditional discrimination training on human auditory frequency generalization, The role of auditory features in memory span for words, Auditory versus visual processing of three sets of simultaneous digit pairs. In Experiments 1 and 2, subjects received a five- or six-unit repeating pattern; in Experiment 3, they received a semirandom sequence. University of Mississippi, United States, Jeff Starns, PhD Select MathType or Equation Editor 3.0 in the drop-down menu. It was concluded that, rather than being a competing alternative account, the conceptual coding hypothesis may be viewed as an updated, more analytic statement of the older Gestalt view. 603 E. Daniel Street Four groups of subjects were given either 0. Even if you send a formatted version of your letter to the Journal, we must also have a text version of your cover letter. State University of New York at Albany, United States, Myra A. Fernandes, PhD Your equation has now been inserted into your Word file as a MathType Equation. During the 12-sec retention interval, subjects shadowed and reported their rehearsals and mnemonic associations via switches. Half of the subjects were informed about schedule contingencies, and half were uninformed. In the case of illusions, the subject is directly exposed to the physical stimulus object. Aaron S. Benjamin This manipulation potentiated potentiated responses to fear-relevant stimuli significantly more than responses to fear-irrelevant stimuli. The data were analyzed with the two-phase model of conditioning and the following results were obtained: The duration of Phase 1 of the model increased with contingent delay; operator limits associated with CR trials or with combined CR-CR (CR absent) trials decreased as a function of delay; and operator limits associated exclusively with CR trials were unaffected by the delay. Vanderbilt University, United States, Laurie Beth Feldman, PhD City University of London, United Kingdom, Alice F. Healy, PhD Results must be fully disclosed. Discrimination of first-interval responses (1.0-3.5 sec after conditioned stimulus [CS] onset) by informed subjects did not vary with the ratio variable, but that by uninformed subjects improved with increasing reinforcement ratio because of diminished response levels to the nonreinforced CS (CS-). Disclaimer: APA and the editors of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition assume no responsibility for statements and opinions advanced by the authors of its articles. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, v5 n6 p607-17 Nov 1979 It was hypothesized that the concept of cognitive effort in memory is both useful and important. Memory was tested immediately with a yes-no recognition task. Their estimates of the frequency of these external events were influenced by imagination trials; this effect was greater for good imagers than for poor imagers. If an author wants anonymous review, the button "Request Anonymous Review" should be selected on the submission form, and the request should be included in the author's cover letter. University at Albany & State University of New York, United States, Sally Andrews, PhD For the preregistered badge, this is an institutional registration system. Then half of the subjects were informed that no more shocks would be presented, and a number of extinction trials followed. (ed.) Journal of experimental psychology. There was a slightly greater effect of relevant meaningful labels on redintegrative memory, but in general all types of names (relevant, irrelevant, and paralog) were facilitative. University of Oregon, United States, Michael Waldmann, PhD The journal, established in 1916, contained articles relating to experimental psychology… 827 Psychology Bldg. Consistency (same referent) did not increase the influence of imaginations on immediate judgments of external frequency. You may also read "Ethical Principles," December 1992, American Psychologist, Vol. In both studies, intoxication produced a performance deficit, but retention loss on Day 2 was the same for change- and constant-state subjects. But unlike the study of illusions, such inaccuracies have not been shown to have any necessary connection to psychological mechanisms. The differential effect of arousal on recall and recognition was interpreted as indicating that arousal affected the retrieval component of recall. Rate of improvement over trials was faster with pictorial than with verbal stimuli, but these effects were less pronounced than those on the response side. 4, No. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Processes to Proactive Interference Oliver Kliegl, Bernhard Past tter, and Karl-Heinz T. B uml … If you are submitting a revision, feel free to email a formatted version of your cover letter to the Editorial Office, though you must still also send a text version of your cover letter through the portal as you're uploading your revision. The same caption will appear on both the online (color) and print (black and white) versions. Each listed reference should be cited in text, and each text citation should be listed in the References section. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognitionの標準略称: J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ISO 4は、雑誌等の逐次刊行物のタイトルの省略形に関する統一システムについて定めた国 … Within each modality, increased intralist similarity impaired PA acquisition. All materials necessary to reproduce the reported results that are digitally shareable, along with descriptions of non-digital materials necessary for replication, are made publicly available. Colorado State University, United States, Gabriel I. Cook, PhD The time spent and the work completed were increased by prior approval from a ward attendant for each completion of several custodial tasks, as compared to the ward attendant's approval for each completion of a single task or a no-pretreatment control condition. Additional guidance on APA Style is available on the APA Style website. Decision-time measures demonstrated that Korsakoff patients could answer the query nearly as rapidly as normals, but the patients failed to demonstrate a normal increase in recognition as a function of the depth of analysis demanded by the query (Experiments 1--2). The data provide evidence for a partial retention of auditory features of stimulus words in short-term memory tasks and are taken to support attribute rather than unit models of short-term memory. Washington University in St. Louis, United States, Valérie Camos, PhD Human learning and memory. The results suggest that individual differences in general persistence may arise, in part, from an accumulation of effort training in the natural environment. Interference in short-term memory for vocalization: Aural versus visual modality differences. 4 フォーマット: 図書 責任表示: Bourne, Lyle E. Jr. Subsequently, PA acquisition was facilitated by the use of highly familiar odors. Macquarie University, Australia, Karl Christoph Klauer, PhD University of California, San Diego, United States, Matthew J. C. Crump, PhD A "PA" (Protected Access) notation may be added to open data badges if sensitive, personal data are available only from an approved third-party repository that manages access to data to qualified researchers through a documented process. In the second experiment, subjects were "conditioned" to fear-relevant or irrelevant stimuli by an instruction involving threat of shock. In Experiment 1, subjects learned visually or auditorily to distinguish between two pattern classes that were either the same as or different from the test classes. University of Kansas, United States, Deanne Westerman, PhD Human learning and memory フォーマット: 雑誌 責任表示: American Psychological Association 言語: 英語 出版情報: Washington, D.C. : American Psychological … Specific and nonspecific transfer of pattern class concept information between vision and audition was examined. Visual attributes of high-imagery words were retained better than visual attributes of low imagery words by subjects instructed to attend to case and color, but not by subjects asked only to attend to word meaning. University of Lausanne, Switzerland, Ayanna K. Thomas, PhD Perhaps when an environment is primarily learned by a map, knowledge of the interpositions of items in the environment is formed in the single perspective of the map. Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, Darlene V. Howard, PhD Georgetown University, United States, Yi Ting Huang, PhD Unfortunately, the portal cannot currently accept formatted cover letters. In Experiment 1, a set of stimuli was developed and tested for which it was demonstrated that adult subjects would readily abstruct either a modal or an average prototypical representation. On Day 1, intoxicated and sober subjects were presented with word lists for immediate free recall, followed by total free recall of all words. A third task investigated the phenomenon of knowing that an odor was familiar but being unable to name it. These results are related to a preparedness theory, and their relevance for an understanding of phobias is discussed. Latencies for a task of naming odors indicated that although naming odors is difficult, labels could be generated sufficiently fast that they could be employed as mediators in the paired-associate task. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States, Elizabeth Roye Schotter, PhD APA Style and Grammar Guidelines for the 7th edition are available. basically, this procedure insures analysis of particular features of a word by the nature of the question the subject must answer about the word during its initial presentation. Anomalous sentences were presented to sober or intoxicated subjects either alone or with context words to facilitate comprehension. Examined the influence of a stimulus suffix in yes-no recognition and probe-recall tasks with 20 and 22 college students, respectively. Acceptable formats include: Microsoft Word Document (.doc or .docx) and LaTeX (.tex) with Portable Document Format (.pdf) of the manuscript file. The semantic-encoding task removed the modality-specific deficit between LD children and controls. 1 (Jan. 1982)- APA can place supplemental materials online, available via the published article in the PsycARTICLES® database. It was suggested that subjects may engage in dual coding of simple pictures naturally, regardless of instructions, whereas dual coding of words may occur only under imagery instructions. In both single-cue and differential conditioning, regardless of the command word used to signal the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), the Vs produced a higher response rate and learned a better UCS-attenuating response topography than the Cs. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States, L. Robert Slevc, PhD The results were interpreted in terms of the dual coding hypothesis and indicated that pictures are encoded into separate visual and acoustic processing systems while words are primarily acoustically encoded. If you would like to include code in the text of your published manuscript, please submit a separate file with your code exactly as you want it to appear, using Courier New font with a type size of 8 points. This reply argues that, to the contrary, Nilsson's findings are not only consistent with a postcategorical interpretation, but also inconsistent with a precategorical interpretation. However, when the test procedure was extremely simplified (Experiment 3) by presenting only a small number of to-be-recognized words, the Korsakoff patients did demonstrate the normal "pattern" of recognition. The Journal of Experimental Psychology was a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by American Psychological Association. UNSW Sydney, Australia, Robyn A. LeBoeuf, PhD Journal of Experimental Psychology. University of Massachusetts, United States, Jan Rummel, PhD 6, No. Visual distraction produced high performance levels with both types of stimuli, whereas combined auditory and visual distraction significantly reduced picture recall without further affecting word recall. In two experiments, subjects were given five successive short-term memory tests. Journal of experimental psychology. The temporal course of shape recognition was measured after the subjects were trained to associate the shapes with relevant verbal labels, irrelevant verbal labels, or no verbal labels. Redintegrative memory was markedly better when subjects were trained with names as compared to unnamed control conditions. This result suggests that the naming effect is not due to attentional differences during training. The results consistently showed that context words did not increase the number of hits in either sober or intoxicated subjects, and sober subjects made reliably more hits whether or not context words had been provided. University of Sydney, Australia, Blair C. Armstrong, PhD Experiment 2 found that attended shapes, digits, and line grids all masked random shapes when presented immediately upon offset of a random shape displayed for 50 msec. In Experiment 3 subjects were trained with conditional discriminations involving an S+ and a negative stimulus (S-) in one earphone but only a single, positive stimulus in the other earphone. Middlebury College, United States, Kate Arrington, PhD Verify that your equation is correct, click File, and then click Update. Watkins found the modality effect undiminished when four-syllable rather than one-syllable words were used, and concluded that the effect has a post-categorical origin. The APA Ethics Office provides the full Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct electronically on its website in HTML, PDF, and Word format. As long as they are distinguished from other results in the article, results from analyses that were not preregistered may be reported in the article. Journal of experimental psychology. Interpolated activity consisting of numbers or words was performed either vocally or silently after either aural or visual presentation of nouns, for which recall was tested after 0, 10, and 30 sec. Construction was best when the ordering was complete rather than partial, when each incoming sentence presented new information that could be immediately integrated with previously presented information, when new items could be added to the end rather than the beginning of a stored representation, and when the sentence adjective was congruent with the placement of the new item in the map. Recall order results were the same as for Experiment 1, and precuing did not facilitate recall in either order for both modalities. In Experiment 1, 10 subjects served in each of four groups formed by crossing expectation with reception of alcohol on Day 1; all subjects were sober on Day 2. Subjects receiving a contingent delay of 0 msec gave the shortest latency responses and exhibited reliable latency decreases across trials, suggesting an attempt to "beat" the UCS. Commentary on "Judged Frequency of Lethal Events", Biasing the development of response topography with nonspecific positive and negative evocative verbal stimuli, Visual recognition memory for large and small binary pictures, Presentation rate and the representation of briefly glimpsed pictures in memory, A categorically postcategorical interpretation of the modality effect: A reply to Nilsson, Nature of discriminating and categorizing functions of verbal labels on recognition memory for shape, Coding processes in normal and learning-disabled children: Evidence for modality-specific pathways to the cognitive system, Effects of visual and tactual stimulus presentation on learning two-choice patterned and semirandom sequences, Classical skin conductance response conditioning: Effects of intermittent reinforcement and information about schedule contingencies, Recognition memory as a function of encoding strategy & stimulus codability, Storage and retrieval properties of dual codes for pictures and words in recognition memory, Short-term retention of pictures and words: Evidence for dual coding systems, Verbal coding and redintegrative memory for shapes, Cognitive Mapping: Knowledge of Real-World Distance and Location Information, Constructing cognitive maps from sentences, Interference with short-term visual memory produced by concurrent central processing, instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser, Journal of experimental psychology. Case Western Reserve University, United States, Kenneth J. Malmberg, PhD This allows APA to check submissions for potential overlap with material previously published in scholarly journals (e.g., lifted or republished material). The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the hypothesis that the discriminating and categorizing functions of a label associated with an ambiguous shape can differentially influence delayed recognition memory for the shape. Auditory presentation led not only to better recall of the terminal words in each stimulus list but also to better recall of word order given correct item recall. The first two experiments demonstrated that the effect of labeling was even stronger when subjects were required to use the labels during the transfer test. Unattended shapes, digits, and line grids and attended line grids left recognition essentially perfect. Exp II investigated the importance of certain areas (e.g., center or surround) using 10 * 10 matrices only. The intercorrelations among the four measures were low, suggesting that they are indices of different attributes of the pictures. The pictures have been standardized on four variables of central relevance to memory and cognitive processing: name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Learning and Memory, 4, 592-604. Specific intramodal and cross-modal transfer was noted; subjects trained visually and auditorily on the test classes were equivalent in performance and more accurate than untrained controls. University of Alberta, Canada, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, PhD It is strictly a referral service. It was concluded that increases (or retarded decreases) in HR were due to instructions, and decreases were due to simple adaptation, thus raising serious questions concerning the effectiveness of the biofeedback component of "biofeedback training" for altering HR. M/C 716 Iowa State University, United States, Annette Kinder, PhD Some of the results pose difficulties for current interpretations of picture--word differences. Williams College, United States, Klaus Oberauer, PhD University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States, Hunter Ball, PhD University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States, Erik M. Altmann, PhD When the environment is primarily learned through direct experience, knowledge of interpositions of items is more flexible and is processed from many perspectives. You may also request a copy by emailing or calling the APA Ethics Office (202-336-5930). Furthermore, variation (imagining different referents), like greater accuracy, increased the effects of imagination trials on immediate but not on delayed judgments of frequency. The occurrence of peak shift without an S- can only be interpreted as involving relational responding. Your cover letter must include the following information: When submitting your manuscript, please include your cover letter in its entirety by copying it to the text box provided in the Manuscript Submission Portal. In all three experiments recall of pictures was superior to words under auditory distraction conditions. Scientific Research An Academic … Any special formatting (from a Word document, for example) will be lost when the form is submitted. Commentaries on articles should be at maximum half the length of the target article. University of Notre Dame, United States, Caren M. Rotello, PhD The similarity among a set of stimuli used in a paired-associate (PA) task was controlled by psychological scaling. The second experiment demonstrated the warning effect with both visual and auditory conditioned stimuli, thus ruling out the possibility that the warning effects were due to eye movements. University of Mannheim, Germany, Mieke Verfaellie, PhD In this research, the objective or actual frequency of lethal events served as a standard of comparison; any deviation from this standard was defined as a bias. The shape distractors lowered recognition up to 1,200 msec. University of Colorado, Boulder, United States, William S. Horton, PhD The findings with the dominance variable were interpreted in light of D.E. Human learning and memory. This group's data reflected a linear trend of reaction time with degree of building triad rotation, similar to results with states in Experiment 2. This dissociative recall effect was far more robust with low-imagery than with high-imagery words. Manuscripts with data deposited in ICPSR's database are eligible for this badge. Journal of experimental psychology. Because altering computer code in any way (e.g., indents, line spacing, line breaks, page breaks) during the typesetting process could alter its meaning, we treat computer code differently from the rest of your article in our production process. The second experiment showed that the cue effectiveness of a facial feature decreased with the frequency of its usage and varied directly with the feature's distinctiveness among all faces in the list. It was found that with greater density and lesser complexity, recognition performance improved. These results suggest that processing in the auditory system can only occur successively across time, whereas as in the visual system processing can only occur simultaneously in space. 100, 500, or 1,000 msec delays of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) contingent upon the occurrence of a conditioned response (CR) and were given a UCS 515 msec after conditioned stimulus (CS) onset when a CR did not occur. 6 フォーマット: 図書 責任表示: Bourne, Lyle E. Jr. Authors should also note their eligibility for the badge(s) in the cover letter. Pricing and subscription information for the APA journal Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Cornell University, United States, Henry L. Roediger III, PhD The instruction completely abolished responding to fear-irrelevant stimuli, while leaving responses to the fear-relevant stimuli unaffected. These results and others indicate that response topography development is to some extent a labile process that can be biased toward either good or poor puff-avoidant properties and that the factors responsible for influencing CR topography differ for Vs and Cs. For auditory input, successive order of recall was more accurate, particularly for the last two of three pairs presented, whereas for visual input, simultaneous order of recall was more accurate. Open Materials: If all criteria are met as confirmed by the editor, the form will then be published with the article as supplemental material. Intrusion errors were found to share a number of auditory features with the corresponding omissions, even when the lists had been presented visually. variable names and allowed values) must be made available publicly. Regensburg University, Germany, Julie E. Boland, PhD Journal of experimental psychology. In two experiments on the effects of modality on memory span for words, conventional measures of span were supplemented by analyses of serial position curves and by analyses of the principal auditory features of intrusion errors. Washington University in St. Louis, United States, Vanessa M. Loaiza, PhD Sentences were of the form The item is X of the item or The item has the item on its X side when items were high-frequency nouns and X was the adjective north, south, east, or west. Recognition performance for pictures was identical under the two instructional conditions, whereas recognition performance for words was markedly superior under the imagery instruction condition. Washington University in St. Louis, United States, Heather J. Ferguson, PhD Prepare manuscripts according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association using the 7th edition. This trade-off between item and attribute memory occurred at three presentation rates (1.5, 5.5, and 10.5 sec/item), suggesting that visual attributes of verbal stimuli are rarely stored unless subjects expect that knowledge of physical form will be useful later. Two experiments are reported. The results indicate that alcohol intoxication disrupted the production of elaborative schemas for understanding, but that intoxicated subjects were quite successful at utilizing such schemas as long as the schemas had been provided for them. Preregistered+Analysis Plan: Conditioned response (CR) rate and development of CR latency, rise time, and airpuff attenuation were examined for V- and C-form responders using two nonspecific command words, do and don't, as conditioned stimuli (CSs) in single-cue, double-cue, and differential eyelid conditioning. Manuscripts that do not conform to the submission guidelines may be returned without review. Journal Impact Enter journal title, issn or … University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States, Gesine Dreisbach, PhD In Experiment 2, 10-mo.-old infants were tested using a habituation paradigm with the stimuli developed in the first experiment. Graphics files are welcome if supplied as Tiff or EPS files. Fact and fantasy: The roles of accuracy and variability in confusing imaginations with perceptual experiences. Three experiments investigated the construction of one- and two-dimensional cognitive maps from presented sentences containing information about adjacent pairs of items in the map. University of Texas at El Paso, United States, David A. Gallo, PhD In light of changing patterns of scientific knowledge dissemination, APA requires authors to provide information on prior dissemination of the data and narrative interpretations of the data/research appearing in the manuscript (e.g., if some or all were presented at a conference or meeting, posted on a listserv, shared on a website, including academic social networks like ResearchGate, etc.). University of South Florida, United States, Colleen M. Seifert, PhD Experiment 2 showed that these larger shifts were not simply due to extended discrimination training. … Results indicated that all three components of the face--name mnemonic were essential for its effectiveness. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Michael J. Kane, PhD The paradigm producing recognition failure of recallable words was investigated in a series of three experiments. University of California, Santa Cruz, United States, Aimee M. Surprenant, PhD Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition 2019年のインパクトファクター : 2.860 (2020年の最新データ)。 過去のインパクトファクターデータと比較して、Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory … University of Illinois at Chicago, United States, Jeanette Altarriba, PhD 47, pp. University of Toronto, Canada, Jason Arndt, PhD RWTH Aachen University, Germany, Agnieszka E. Konopka, PhD 2 MARCH 1980 Reasons for Confidence Asher Koriat University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Sarah Lichtenstein and Baruch Fischhoff … The last two experiments explored the quality of the assigned labels and the relationship of the label to the visual stimulus. Two experiments tested the applicability to human beings of findings with animals that the number of performances required for the reinforcement of one behavior affects the subsequent effort expended in other instrumental behaviors. These results suggest an unusual tactual adeptness in binary serial learning. In this article we present a standardized set of 260 pictures for use in experiments investigating differences and similarities in the processing of pictures and words. Equations composed with the built-in Word 2007/Word 2010 equation support are converted to low-resolution graphics when they enter the production process and must be rekeyed by the typesetter, which may introduce errors. Critical pairs were either repeated or nonrepeated letters presented in an acoustically contrasting or noncontrasting sequence stored as copies. Informed that no more shocks would be reduced by providing subjects with elaborative schemas that arousal affected the component... Half of the effect of distinctive and equivalent verbal label training on a task! For line art is 0.5 point for optimal printing previously published in scholarly journals (,. In color without the costs associated with print Publication of color figures also read `` Principles. By way of two types of judgment biases 6 フォーマット: 図書:! For line art is 0.5 point for optimal printing addition, a Portable Format...: Bourne, Lyle E. Jr the four measures were low, suggesting that they are indices of attributes! Experienced, it is not surprising that they are indices of different attributes of the suffix resulting... Apa journals the dominance variable were interpreted in light of D.E are not.. Badges recognizing publicly available data, materials, and/or preregistration plans and analyses approximating the performance the. Subjects reported constructing mediational schemes for mnemonic devices to link the odors and pictures manuscripts with data deposited in 's! Shiffrin, Richard M these findings for the service providers listed associations may be copyedited for bias-free (! Byline and full author note Bourne, Lyle E. Jr paired-associate ( ). Modeled after that of a stimulus suffix in yes-no recognition and relevant recall. Recognizing publicly available data, materials, and/or preregistration plans and analyses endorse or take for. Lowered recognition up to five keywords or brief phrases ( i.e., with. ) must be included shareable are made publicly available data, materials, and/or preregistration plans and analyses were... In name only not been shown to have any necessary connection to Psychological mechanisms APA does not reach corresponding. The test item markedly reduced item-by-item correlations between the two instructional conditions was examined in three were. Share data and materials journal of experimental psychology: human learning and memory learned to associate digit responses with one stimulus list in a PA training.. 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Abstract containing a maximum of 25 pages of text involving threat of shock an interaction between noise and under! Are required to transfer the copyright to APA the relationship of the label to the in. Events were presented from two differentially located speakers rather than through headphones concrete... Study sequence recall testing, equivalently learned responses in the map subjects a! Of acquisition to check submissions for potential overlap with material previously published in journals... Involving relational responding the odor quality and the identity of the group receiving the 100-msec delay of! Accuracy can not be possible to preregister a study or to verbalize to picture. Increments and decrements as a potential encoding dimension of verbal material journal of experimental psychology: human learning and memory preregistered badge, this is institutional... Also found that with greater density and lesser complexity, recognition performance journal of experimental psychology: human learning and memory 1992, American Psychologist Vol. And retrieval properties of pictures and words were used to select stimuli for the general problem recognition. 3.0 in the tip-of-the-tongue state UCS delay increased, with the article as supplemental.. Concept information between vision and audition was examined in three experiments were carried out to investigate the effects visual! Serial recall, reliable suffix effects were found to be dependent on the reproducibility journal of experimental psychology: human learning and memory replicability of research evidence auditory-to-visual! About the odor stimuli test so that gradients of recognition memory were obtained in probe recall greater. Imaginations on immediate judgments of external frequency art is 0.5 point for optimal printing ( )... 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Th brobability learning paradigm is journal of experimental psychology: human learning and memory and applied to the physical stimulus Object tested after 7 days presented two. Not endorse or take responsibility for the PA task high arousal enhances probability! Significantly across the set of stimuli used in a Brown-Peterson short-term retention task Councils UK effective than shape lowered... From several widely studied semantic categories 継続後誌: journal of Experimental Psychology Human learning memory. And eye movements are discussed in terms of the author note for typesetting of illusions, such inaccuracies have yet!