The answers lie in the realm of military munitions and advances in weapons technology. The immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny in India in 1857 was the belief that the Lee-Enfield rifle's cartridges were greased with cow and/or pig … 17th-19th century only, not 20th. The main difference between the two was in the rifling, which was a new type of rifling done exclusively at the factory in Enfield. At the same time, the technical advances of the Industrial Age ushered in new methods of production and this led to the development of what would be one of the most important firearms in the history of the British Empire—the Enfield Pattern 1853 Rifle. As the bullet contained no annular grease rings like the French and American minie ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was wrapped with a strip of greased paper to facilitate loading. The grease used on these cartridges was rumoured to be made of beef and pork which angered the Hindu and the Muslims in the army ... Mangal Pandey was the first sepoy of 5th Company of the 34th Native Infantry Regiment. (Other than the two recent BBC series covering the overall history of the British Empire, which I have already seen). To load the rifle, the rifleman or sepoy had to pull out a cartridge and bite off the bullet, which was at one end, and pour the pre-measured powder down the barrel, followed by the ball. This had hurt both Hindus' and Muslims' religious sentiments which was one of the causes of the sepoy mutiny of 1857. … in the mid-1850s, a new Enfield rifle was introduced into India that required a soldier to bite off the ends of greased cartridges in order to load the weapon. One other observation. 1896 Enfield LE1 303 New Zealand NZ Lee Metford . 4 posts • … Area Code: 859 . 1853 Pattern Rifled Musket; Enfield rifle. This is noted in Lt. Col. H. Bond's Treatise on Military Small Arms and Ammunition, where he noted that the testing found that the rifle “should never be opened beyond 150 yards, and certainly not exceeding 200 yards.”. After further refinements the Pattern 1853 Rifled Musket arrived. sepoys had to bite the cartridge open to release the powder. The barrel was fastened to the stock by three metal bands, which is why the rifle is still sometimes referred to as a “three band” model. As the bullet incorporated no annular grease rings like the French and American minié ball bullets introduced in 1847, it was wrapped with a strip of greased paper to facilitate loading. And from the cool, damp British Isles was built the largest empire by landmass the world had ever known. It was too late for the East India Company, which first set up trading operations and then ruled the subcontinent for over 250 years. While these units were made of British soldiers this army was not at the time part of the British Army. Each of the weapon’s paper cartridges contained a precise amount of powder and a .577- caliber Minié ball. The Enfield Pattern 53 rifle, which had served the British Army well in Crimea, was introduced to the Indian troops serving in the East India Company. WikiMatrix. Area Code: 859 . $899.00 . A rumour spread that the lubricant used was either cow or pig lard, which was repugnant to Hindus or Muslims, respectively.… Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket Greased Cartridges of Which Rifle Was One of The Immediate Causes of The 1857 Sepoy Uprising? I am definitely very happy with it and it's definitely the nicest one I have. The origins of the rifle actually go back to the earlier era of the British Empire, when the European military designers suggested that a barrel with grooves inside would improve accuracy. Der Namensbestandteil Enfield rührt daher, dass die Royal Small Arms Factory nach einem Brand ihre Fertigungsstätten vom Tower of London nach Enfield verlagerte. The firearm action was invented by the American Jacob Snider, and the Snider-Enfield was one of the most widely used of the Snider varieties. The rifle featured cartridges that contained 68 grains of black powder and had a ball that was typically 530-grain Pritchett or Burton-Minié. Showing and discussing the loading of the 1855 Enfield cartridge and Pritchett Bullet. 17th-19th century only, not 20th. Who introduced a system of 5-yearly inspections and temporary tax farmers? A rumour spread among the sepoys that the grease used to lubricate the cartridges was a mixture of pigs’ and cows’ lard. The Enfield rifle and cartridge | mangal pandey The Enfield rifle and cartridge The P-53 was officially known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle Musket. As a result, many Pattern 1842 muskets were converted into rifles while the British Army adopted the Regulation Pattern 1851 Minié rifle, which was a major technological step forward yet looked only slightly different from Pattern 1842 musket. The new Pattern 1858 gun with a different bore (0.656) was introduced to quell any uneasiness among the Indian sepoys and assurances were given that the cartridges were not dipped in beef or pork fat. Plus, I can't let a good shooter go completely to waste. The cartridge was rumoured to have been greased with animal fat (Pig fat and Cow fat). Author Marina Wheeler captures the period of Partition of India in her book ‘The Lost Homestead’. Introduced in the British Army by the War Department during 1854 in the Crimean War, they proved very effective at a range of 50 to 300 yards (270 m). The term “rifle-musket” was also used as it meant that rifle was the same length as the musket it replaced. While the Pattern 53 ushered in the era of the rifle it was to be short-lived as breech-loading technology was developed. Like the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand that sparked World War I, the issue of the greased cartridge from the new Enfield rifle was the immediate cause of this revolt. The 1854 Infantry Manual specified that to load, the soldier should bite the end off … Loading and Firing the Parker Hale P53 Enfield Rifle Musket with Enfield Paper Cartridge Just one shot in 437 had any effect; clearly, there was room for improvement. To work around this, a pre-measured amount of powder with a musket ball was rolled in paper and turned into a cylindrical cartridge. Another French influence on this model was found in the bayonet. As the British Empire became more global, the Brown Bess continued to see use around the world. Enfield Cartridges and tallow grease A consignment of [the Enfield cartridges] was sent out to India in 1853 to test its keeping qualities (not for firing purposes): the grease made at Enfield was composed of tallow from beef and pork fat. The cartridges for this were widely believed to be greased with a mixture of cow and pig fat, and to bite them open when loading the rifle (as required by the drill books) would defile both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. While its use as the main service rifle was short-lived, lasting just thirteen years, it was a proven weapon that earned a reputation for reliability when it was used by both sides during the American Civil War. This, in turn, was followed by the greased paper and then rammed in. Das Magazin fasste acht Schuss. The weapon was designed by RSAF Enfield, and it weighed 9.5 pounds unloaded and was about 55 inches in length—taller than many soldiers who carried it into battle. This was done because a longer rifle was at the time thought to be necessary enable the muzzles of the second rank of soldiers to project beyond the faces of the men in the front, while also ensuring that the weapons would be long enough to be fitted with a bayonet to be of effect against cavalry. 2 See answers siyara123 siyara123 In the year 1857 the new Enfield rifle was introduced. Post Oct 07, 2014 #38 2014-10-07T11:48. The Queen’s Proclamation, Read out on 1st Nov 1858|Wikimedia Commons, Birth of India and Pakistan, Division of Punjab. At this time, the Enfield rifle was introduced in the army. The “Greased Cartridge Affair:” Re-Examining the Pattern 1853 Enfield Cartridge and Its Role in the Indian Mutiny of 1857 The firearm action was invented by the American Jacob Snider, and the Snider-Enfield was one of the most widely used of the Snider varieties. I submit that the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket is the first infantry weapon of our current modern era, having more in common with the M í ò’s and M’s of today’s U.S. military than the smooth-bore muskets that came before it. Discontent had been simmering among the sepoys for some time and, ironically, the anger at the cartridges was the trigger for the Revolt of 1857. Oh, Yes. BRITISH 1853 PATTERN ENFIELD RIFLE CARTRIDGES Introduction This article traces the construction and evolution of the cartridges used for the British 1853 pattern Enfield muzzle-loading rifle musket, with reference to the types used in New Zealand. Also, does anyone know of any good documentaries on the British in India? British officers trained at the company's own Addiscombe Military Academy. The rifle featured cartridges that contained 68 grains of black powder and had a ball that was typically 530-grain Pritchett or Burton-Minié. The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle arrived just when it was needed, and it was clear that what worked at Waterloo would not suffice in the coming conflict. This rifled musket had a barrel that was a metre long (99 cm) and three distinctive bands. Loading of the Enfield rifle required tearing off one end of the greased cartridge using one's teeth which was made of: (1) Cow fat (2) Sow fat (3) Both b. The Pattern 53 proved effective against infantry, cavalry and even artillery positions alike. Cartridges from this Then, a wad of cloth was rammed back to keep the powder and ball packed into place. Were the cartridges for the Enfield rifle really greased in pig and cow fat, or was that just a rumor? I have read both. Kalpi is the birthplace of Sage Vyasa & of Birbal. But this was taboo for Muslims who abhor pigs, and Hindus who worship the cow. It was believed that the cartridges that were standard issue with this rifle were greased with lard (pork fat) which was regarded as unclean by Muslims, or tallow (beef … The story has been told countless times; the Indian Munity began as Sepoys—the Indian soldiers serving in the Honourable East India Company—were issued with cartridges that were greased with beef tallow or lard and revolted. Many of these older flintlocks were converted for use with the new percussion system that became known as the Pattern 1839 Musket. When was the new enfield rifle with greased cartridges introduced in the british indian army? Before this, muskets were loaded with powder from a powder horn, after which a lead ball was removed from a separate pouch and rammed into the barrel with a ramrod, which was tucked under the barrel when not in use. It is first worth noting that the company began based on trade, but into the early nineteenth century the unique geopolitical situation actually required that three independent armies of the company's Presidencies were formed. Origin of the Mutiny The immediate cause of the Indian Revolt of 1857, or Sepoy Mutiny, was a seemingly minor change in the weapons used by the British East India Company's troops. This rifle didn't build the British Empire but it helped maintain the foundation and paved the way for future firearms development. It was the musket that was used during the American Revolution and in the conflicts against Napoleon Bonaparte. But the British had forgotten to take into account the religious beliefs of their Indian sepoys. 1853 Pattern Rifled Musket; Enfield rifle. As the dust settled in the Crimea thousands of miles away another war was simmering and ironically the rifle that was part of technological advancement served as the catalyst in the Jewel of the Crown that was the British Empire. Seller: CAALEX . This came to be because the original idea was to have two different sighting arrangements, one for 'ordinary' soldiers and one for rifle regiments. Here’s a clue to what we’re talking about: a rifle that was first issued by the armed forces in Britain in 1855 and in India in 1857. The Lee-Enfield rifles were the mainstay of the British and their Commonwealth partners through both World Wars. Like its predecessor, the Baker rifle, the Enfield was loaded through the gun’s muzzle. Although it was the immediate cause that triggered the first war of independence, long term factors also played an important role, such as military, social, religious, economic and political causes. 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