While the need to fully understand the mechanism by which alum coagulates particles was not immediately pressing, it was important for our research to determine the most effective alum dose for various levels of turbidity in order to temporarily remove alum dosing as a variable in our later experiments. 2. 4. Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? For a given influent turbidity, there is, theoretically, an optimal amount of alum that should be added to the influent in order to form the greatest amount of flocs and thus producing the lowest effluent turbidity. Dosage is usually based on calcs and later fine-tuned through measurements. 1. The metal weight calculator allows you to calculate the weight in pounds for your steel, stainless steel, aluminum, iron, silver and much more! As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… It’s important to refer to the technical data sheets of the product. Iron requirement is greater than the aluminum requirement in terms of chemical dosage to remove same amount of phosphorus. The subsequent experiments at 100 NTU are correct as well as the runs for 50, 75, 150 NTU. Learn more >> Protective Action Guide (PAG) Q&A, Map Templates. This range in alum doses was selected based on previous observations that 40 mg/L of alum produced best results at a turbidity on the order of 100 NTU. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Ratio-Proportion. This trend occurred across all turbidities (this observation is less obvious in the 100 NTU run, but the data does not necessarily oppose this observation) and is a phenomena that may be of significance in understanding alum effectiveness. TNTC Calculation . For your question: Will type of coagulant make difference for P removal? Thetreatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a … Also, keep in mind that a higher flow can reduce the detention time and inhibit flocculation and settling. These colorimetric tests allow for fast results and enable timely process control adjustments. Lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. The increase in chloride in the treated water is much lower than the sulphate increase from alum, resulting in lower overall increases in the TDS of the treated water. Anoxic zones are used along with anaerobic zones as part of biological phosphorus removal. Thanks for sharing... @wesley If it is added in the bioreactor, ferrous salt (chloride or sulphate) will work and will be cheaper. Dosage calculation formulas. The flocculator setup was used in this experiment. At the beginning working with a MBR can represent a significant challenge: increase in variables, different performance indicators to monitor and control, & unfamiliar equipment… it takes time to adapt. This fact allows us to directly relate the settling rate of the flocs to the size of the flocs, while neglecting factors such as electrostatic interactions and porosity (which would affect drag coefficients and densities.) Targeting the minimum flow rate for drinking-water distribution. The alkalinity of the water will also effect how well the coagulant will perform. Colorimetric measures are available and can be done quickly (providing that blank samples are measured to subtract the initial color of the sample). The other fractions were arranged so that all of the other units, mgand gr, cancelled out. Coagulation & Flocculation Calculations 17 Sedimentation Calculations 19 Chemical Feeder Calculations 21 Chemical Feeder Calibrations 22 Chemical Usage 23 Filtration Rate Calculations 24 Backwash Calculations 26 Chlorination Calculations 27 Laboratory Calculations 28 Horsepower & Pump Efficiency 31 Wire to Water Calculations 34 These aggregated contaminants had the potential to clog up the very narrow feed tubes that led out of the alum stock container. Single-Step Flocculation for reclaiming Parts Washer wastewater? While Process Controller read a value of 5 mg/L for the alum dose, the pump was not spinning and thus not pumping the amount indicated by Process Controller. This indicates that at higher influent turbidities (higher particle concentrations), particle aggregation becomes easier and therefore effluent flocs are generally bigger and settle out faster. Knowing your influent and effluent flow rates, as well as dissolved oxygen, nitrate concentrations in the biological tanks and the amount of phosphorous you are dealing with (influent & sidestreams). Dose Calculator. Our main objective in conducting research with the lab flocculator is to be able to isolate each of the parameters in order to understand their specific roles in the flocculation process and to optimize overall flocculator efficiency. The optimum aluminum sulfate dosage was 2 g/L. This optimal alum dose should, therefore, change with different influent turbidities. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? Various inorganic coagulants can be used to remove phosphorus in biological wastewater treatment. Coagulation is the process of chemically destabilizing solutions whereby electrolytes are added into solution so as to reduce the charge on the colloidal particles, thus facilitating their close approach and aggregation. alum used (wet or dry), dosage rate, area treated, equipment rental or purchase, and labor. How will shock loads of infiltration water affect P removal? Since most suspended colloidal matter in surface waters have an overall negatively charged surface, the dissolved Al species will adsorb onto the surfaces of these particles and reduce its net surface charge, thus lowering the barrier for floc formation. Alum doses in the range 30 to 60 mg/L have been used to treat this water, which has a true colour of 20-30 Pt/Co units and a turbidity of 20 to 40 NTU under normal river flow conditions. The ANN created is able to calculate the dosage based on the value of initial turbidity of the fluid to be treated with a MSE 0 mg/L, achieving removal percentages greater than 93% for most cases. What intrusion detectors do you use? To monitor the amount of phosphorus, and the required dosage of coagulant, you will need to sample various locations to take suitable actions. The largest alum dose used in these experiments was 45 mg/L, and while the curves show that the marginal benefit gained by adding more alum in the 40-45 mg/L range is minimal, extending the alum dose range will give more definitive evidence that we have indeed reached a critical value in alum dose. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. For the 50 NTU experiments (Figure 1) a general trend can be seen that indicates final turbidity decreases as alum dose increase. It is expected that a point will be reached at which additional alum addition will not significantly reduce turbidity, and it is in the proximity of this alum dose that we suspect the optimal alum dose will be. Furthermore, a small concentration of P, which is the case of diluted municipal waters, also requires a strong molar ratio to achieve a low resulting concentration, despite a small percentage of reduction. The affective diameter was 42 cm and the tube wrapped around the cylinder approximately 15.5 times, giving a total length of approximately 20.45 meters. The appropriate amount of alum required to facilitate total particle removal via the sedimentation of flocs is dictated by a couple key parameters: The concentration of clay particles and other natural organic matter (specifically the chemical properties of these contaminants and their reactivity with the dissolved Al species) will effect how much alum is needed. A high level of reduction requires a high Al: P molar ratio. Depending on the type of coagulant used, the dosage will vary. The lowest turbidity reading reached in each of the four turbidity experiments were in the 10 NTU range. Online metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the weight of Aluminum Plate metal. alum to be added and give proper precipitation is calculated using the this equation: Total alkalinity required (mg/L) = Alkalinity reacting with alum (mg/L) + alkalinity presence in the water (mg/L) {?1 mg/L alum reacts with 0.45 mg/L alkalinity}. The cause of this discrepancy is unclear, but it appeared to be an isolated occurrence as the experiments run with 75 (Figure 2) and 150 NTU (Figure 4) were consistent with expectations. Is there a general amount of P removed by biological/chemical treatment? How satisfied are you? I'm new to working with this type of treatment and challenged by: low TP limit of 0.1 mg/L, high infiltration rates, undersized equalization tank, raw data only available by one grab sample per month, O & M limited to once or twice a week, no access to remote control and monitoring and so on. Aluminum Plate Weight Calculation Material Alloy Steel Aluminum Beryllium Brass Bronze Cast Iron Columbium Copper Copper Alloys Gold Lead Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Plastic Silver Stainless Steel Tantalum Titanium Tungsten Zinc Zirconium *  An activated sludge retains between 10 to 20%. Metric Conversions. A raw water supply is treated with an alum dosage of 25 mg/L. When dissolved in water, alum dissociates and the multivalent aluminum ions (Al3+) form various species that have an average positive charge. 1 • Collect Sediment Cores • Determine if alum treatment is necessary. Normally, a Mathcad program developed by the previous teams would have been utilized to gather, parse, and extract relevant data recorded through out the experimental runs; however, our team had not been introduced to the software at the time of this report's submission and had to parse and analyze the data with Microsoft Excel. This translates to a flow rate of roughly 9.69 mL/sec through the 0.42m diameter pipes used in this experimental setup. Infiltration will change the characteristics of our influent. The data sheets will mention the density as well as the percentage of alum (or other) in each product. Weight Calculator Metal gets heavy, and whether you want to see how much shipping is likely to be, or if your vehicle (or back) can handle it, it’s good to know what your order weighs. Since the pumps are unable to pump fluid through the pipes at those speeds, it is valid to assume that the flow in the pipes will be laminar for our experiments. Do deficient conditions in: anoxic/aeration/MBR tank zones have an impact on P removal? More experiments should be done to refine the data resolution of the 25-55 mg/L alum dose range for each of the 4 turbidities. If we maintain both flow rate and flocculator length (hence residence time) constant, we can keep mixing constant. Aluminum Sulfate (liquid) ... dosage calculation. To help with that, we’ve got our handy weight calculator here. The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. The solution to this problem was to dilute the alum to a lower concentration (1500 mg/L in our case) so that a higher alum flow rate would be required to obtain a particular influent concentration than when it was at 5000 mg/L. This precipitation simultaneously increases the consumption of aluminum, but these hydroxides also contribute to the flocculation and decanting of the phosphor particles. The 100 NTU experiments were the first experiments to be run, so the error was fixed and eliminated. In the current laboratory flocculator experimental setup, there are several parameters that control the flocculator process. From observations of past experiments and reports done by past lab floc teams, a Gbar (average velocity gradient) of roughly 40 sec-1 was selected as the Gbar that will be used in every run of this particular alum dose experiment. Therefore,the optimal alum dose should be indicated by the curve with the quickest settling rate and final turbidity. Index Terms—Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 18H 2 O), artificial neural networks, coagulation, flocculation, optimal dosage of coagulant. First, differences in flocculator design, and thus intensity and quality of mixing, could greatly affect the appropriate alum dose for various turbidities. After canceling out units the mathematical operations are performed to obtain the answer. Geometric Mean Calculator - Fecal Coliform Reporting. USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L. 4 1 60 30 1 1 2 × × = The answer has to have tabs as units since that is the units for the dose on hand. Medical Dosage Calculations For Dummies Cheat Sheet By Richard Snyder, Barry Schoenborn No matter what initials you have after your name (RN, CNA, PA, and so on), you can bet you’ll see math on a daily basis if you’re going into (or are already in) a career in the medical field. The equations relating Gbar to the flow rate Q for laminar pipe flow are as displayed below. The leading Community in drinking waterand wastewater management. Calculate the followings: 1. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Calculate the actual alum dose in mg/L for a plant treating a flow of 1 MGD with an alum feed rate of 130 lb/day. USALCO liquid Aluminum Sulfate is ready to use and mixes well in water. 2 • Apply half alum dose (1. st) • Collect sediment cores (6 months) 3 You need to calculate the TP % of reduction required to get the amount of alum (or any other metal salt) needed for the expected results. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. While finding this relationship is integral to our later experiments, the empirical values would not necessarily apply to vertical flocculators used in water treatment plants designed for Honduras. Check our job offerings and find your next career move, Get fresh news from the industry with FluksAqua blog, FluksAqua, your leading online resource for water and wastewater services. If you want to calculate the dose of a medication, you need to use the following equation: dose = weight * dosage. Since we do not have the equipment needed to observe and measure the sizes of flocs formed after each experiment, we can only observe the rate at which flocs settle under quiescent conditions and the final settled turbidity. The objective of our first experiment was to determine the optimal alum dose for various influent turbidities. Alum dosage must be tailored to meet your specific wastewater characteristics and discharge requirements. However, the purpose of our investigating optimal alum dose is not to give operators in Honduras a alum dosing guide, but to develop a control method in our experiments that will render alum dosing a temporary non-variable. Anthricite coal filters, average life span? The length of the tube was inherited from the summer team, as our team did not replace the tube that had already been attached to the set up. Do you have any feedback on using diaphragm pumps for lime slurry dosing? In order to isolate alum dose as the only variable in our experiment, we must maintain mixing at a constant. It will delude the concentration of P in the wastewater. It all depends on the wastewater characteristics, the mixing & dispersion conditions, the phosphorus concentration in your raw water and the expected concentration at the release point & so on…. Moreover, the levels of contaminants in the waters in Honduras will have very different dissolved matter in it that will react to alum much differently than in our experiments. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. What's the best material for pipes used in chlorination? Alum Calculator You can only enter data in the yellow fields below: Alum Strength % w/v (g/100mL) * mg/L mg/mL Pump Setting L/Hr * L/Hr mg/Hr Alum Dosed Plant Flow Rate L/second * Volume Dosed Water L/Hr Dose of Alum per Litre of Dosed Water- mg Alum/ L Dosed Water Target Alum Dose … 12H 2 O are considered to be an alum. PAC=PACl. I surmise that you would test for phosphorus, pH, temp., D.O., TSS in all zones; could aluminum residual test be a useful indicator of optimal process? {"serverDuration": 67, "requestCorrelationId": "20e4cabe323c20ec"}, Overall Tube Floc Research and Past Report. Potassium alum has been used in maraschino cherries and pickles. How is an optimal dosage determined when using alum for phosphorus removal for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR? Because MBR are known to consistently produce high effluent quality including TP concentration of 0.1 mg/L, their selection is often based on severe discharge limits. Flocculation is the subsequent process whereby particles collide and form large aggregates, or flocs. Sometimes alum is seen in its crystalline form, although it is most often sold as a powder. Too high a dose can result in pH problems, wasted chemical, increased chemical costs... The calculation for the length of the tube was done by measuring the outer diameter of the cylinder around which the tube was wrapped (plus adjustments for the thickness of the tube itself) and multiplying that by ¿ to give the circumference and then multiplying the circumference by the number of times the tube wrapped completely around the cylinder. There is an unexpected anomaly in the relationship between the 0 mg/L curve and the 5 mg/L curve. Contrary to expectations, it appears that the quality of the final water was worse off after adding 5 mg/L of alum as opposed to having no alum present. Final turbidity is a measure of whether of how much suspended particles were not affected by the alum---a high final turbidity would indicate that an inadequate amount of alum was introduced compared to the amount of contaminants in solution. Figure 3: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 100 NTU. wat is the best way to get rid of oder in water..thanks. Part of the aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in parallel with hydroxide ions OH- to form precipitates Aluminum hydroxide Al (OH)3. You can estimate P concentrations for process control with a test kit for reactive phosphorus. I. Dosage rates for aluminum salts or for iron salts are based on the molar ratio of available metal ion to phosphorous. Estimate how much water should you drink per day with this daily water intake calculator. 7. Deficient conditions in your treatment process will inevitably have a repercussion on not only your P removal but on all your parameters. Treatment costs range from $280/acre to $700/acre ($450=approximate average) depending on the dosage requirements and costs to mobilize equipment. *  Alternating between anaerobic and aerobic zones (Biological phosphate removal) can remove more than 20% of the total phosphorus without the use of chemical. *  With no addition of chemical products, a primary decantation usually removes between 5-10% of the total phosphorus. How much pressure generally filled in a chlorine cylinder. The experiments proved that the addition of alum into turbid waters prior to flocculation improves particle aggregation, leading to higher settling velocities and cleaner effluent water. FEEDING DEVICES; A well engineered feeding device is an integral part of an effective water treatment program. Another general observation deduced from comparing each of the figures is that the settling rate of flocs increases dramatically between the alum dose of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L. Figure 2: Settling curves for various alum doses at an influent turbidity of 75 NTU. Yield of the calculations : Polymer consumption GPD (neat) 428.49786 : Polymer consumption GPH (neat) 17.85408 : Polymer consumption GPM (neat) 0.29757 : Polymer consumption Ounces/Min (neat) 38.08870 : PPM of polymer needed to make the process work : 3500 : 24: Process Day (Hrs) RTU polymer/water mixture consumption GPM : 0.29757 It is very important that you input an accurate result; Dosage is the prescribed amount of drug in mg per kg of body weight. Hi Wesley, I like to improve the monitoring when on-site, especially for the final TP. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose is found. 9. Besides, possible cost of treatment and toxicity effect of the chemical coagulant are indicated by the reduction dose of alum. The best way to optimize your system is thru sampling and monitoring. In practice, the aluminum to phosphorus molar ratio to be applied is greater than the stoichiometric ratio. Chemical Dose Determination The most important component of a control strategy for chemical phosphorous removal is the calculation of coagulant dosage. A too low a dose of alum can result in variable effluent P concentrations as well as a noncompliance of discharge limits. 8. 1. The data was omitted from the figure because of those errors. Liquid alum has been used when large alum doses were needed. In water treatment processes, the primary electrolyte introduced into solution as the primary coagulant is aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), also known as Alum. Note: a) .the cost of Poly Aluminium Chloride is twice/thrice of Alum ( roughly the cost of PAC-$0.4/ Kg) Note that the transition between laminar flow to turbulent flow in long smooth pipes occurs at a Reynolds number of roughly Re = 2300. The usual range of alum dose is 10 to 50 mg/L of water. Furthermore, while fine tuning the Process Controller methods, we noticed that that the current concentration of 5000 mg/L, a dose of 5 mg/L could not be produced by the peristaltic pump. Thetreatment reduced the total solids of the wastewater by 89.6%, and produced a supernatant with a pH of4.15 and an optical density of 0.194 nm. You will need to apply a strong molar ratio to achieve the required results. Additionally, it appears that for the higher alum doses, the curve flattened out at approximately the same elapsed time in each of the four influent turbidity experiments. I asked a colleague about your questions and we agree with Alinea's answer. After running a set of alum incremented experiments on influent turbidities of 50, 75, 100, 150 NTU, we extracted the data for analysis. The experiments do not show conclusive evidence of where the optimal alum dose is for the different levels of turbidity. Calculate your radiation dose > > Radiation Health Effects. One of the important contributors to the formation of flocs is the chemical coagulant aluminum sulfate (Alum). Since the experiments were run under identical conditions, the mechanisms creating the flocs are identical from run to run; therefore, the composition of the flocs (their shape and density) should be relatively uniform. 6. 0 Results indicated that turbidity removal efficiency declined to some extent by increasing initial turbidity level from 100 to 200, 500, and 1000 NTU. To determine the optimal alum dose needed for an influent water turbidity of 100 NTU, we set up a special program in Process Controller. Fluoride result is over half of the MAC(1.5), does sampling increase too every 3 months until results reduce to < half? Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. Wastewater Sludge (biosolids) Production Estimating Calculator . Second step, we make a comparison between required alkalinity and alkalinity already in Figures 1-4 display the time series plots of turbidity during the settle state in which flocculated particles are allowed to settle in a quiescent environment inside the modified glass cylinder of the effluent turbidimeter. Although alum is approved as a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, it is toxic in large doses. Lab sampling is the main way to monitor proper dosing of P removal. Phosphates that respond to colorimetric tests without digestion of the sample are termed "reactive phosphorus", which is largely measured as orthophosphate. Pre-treatment dosing with lime is only required when alum doses greater than 30 mg/L are required. In order to isolate and temporarily remove alum as a variable, a relationship between alum dose and influent turbidity must be determined. We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. We varied the alum dose added to the influent stream from 0 mg/L to 45 mg/L in increments of 5 mg/L for an influent turbidity of 50, 75, 100, and 150 NTU. Nitrification - Alkalinity Calculator . Application of higher alum dosage range may improve turbidity removal from Given that the flocculator length is fixed, we must select and hold constant a flow rate that is will cause adequate amount of mixing but that will not break up flocs. The fact that the curves are so similar in all four figures suggests that the optimal alum doses changes only slightly for this range of turbidity values. On-Site, especially for the final effluent in a wastewater MBR P concentrations as as! Water will also effect how well the coagulant will perform MGD ( million gallon ). 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Is greater than the aluminum cations Al3 + precipitate in the absence of oxygen our handy weight calculator helps... System configuration and relevant concentrations needs, including activity status anoxic/aeration/MBR tank zones have an impact on P.! Decreases as alum dose and influent turbidity must be determined Estimate how much pressure generally filled in a wastewater?... You will need to use the Radiation dose calculator to Estimate your yearly dose from sources ionizing. Each product you drink per day with this daily water intake calculator know over/under... Size of flocs is the best way to monitor proper dosing of removal... ) will work and will be run to obtain better data resolution at the latest thinking the 5 curve! Phosphorus following a `` Solid-liquid '' separation which is largely measured as orthophosphate: Settling for! Processes and looks alum dosage calculation the latest thinking mgand gr, cancelled out alum! Ozonation as effective as chlorination ( Al3+ ) form various species that have an positive. Lowest turbidity reading reached in each product are used along with anaerobic zones as part of effective. Metal weight calculator which helps to calculate the actual alum dose until the ideal dose is found relationship. And enable alum dosage calculation process control adjustments tubes that led out of the added! An influent turbidity must be determined alum dosage calculation approved as a powder daily water intake calculator, therefore change!

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