The toxin harms small fish in the immediate area, and drives away most The Stomolophus meleagris, also known as cannonball jelly, jellyball or cabbage head jelly, for example, is completely harmless to human beings. Second, not all nematocyst are created equal. And with the super clear water right now… wow, I can watch the dolphin play with the cabbage heads under the water too, pushing them around with their mouths. It is a good swimmer. contribution of information from Dr. Richard Courtney with more info on the Courtney's addition to our knowledge of the Cannonball Jellyfish. The cannonball jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris) gets its common name from its appearance, which is about the same size and general shape as a cannonball. I ate this jellyfish salad in a Thai restaurant. Cannonball jelly's ability to sting. The exumbrella acts as a suction device to help them stay anchored to the ocean floor. Unfortunately, the ones that sting are harder to spot than those that do not, such as a Cabbage Head. This is how most people are likely to encounter the Cannonball jellyfish--decomposing on the beach. Yow! It is distinguished by a cannonball shape and a dome-shaped bell. Rather than a single mouth opening, they have 4 elaborately branched oral arms. must be harvested while still alive and healthy. conjecture, but the venom may be rather impotent. These super common jellyfish are harmless to humans. Big mistake. should not be eaten because once they are beached they decompose rapidly. The good news about them is that they are harmless and they do not sting or cause any kind of harm to humans. The next day it was very itchy and required Jellyball (as they are known locally) fishing is Georgia’s third largest commercial fishery. It may be bluish or yellowish with a brown border. The Cannonball The toxin can cause irregular heart rhythms and problems in the myocardial conduction pathways. There is a huge bloom of cannonballs off the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannonball_Jellyfish, First-aid pain relief products for marine stings. For the human flesh it stings like fire. The cannonball jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris), also known as the cabbagehead jellyfish, is a species of jellyfish in the family Stomolophidae. former instructor at the Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center in Top Answer. comes in contact with eyes it is very painful and is followed with redness and While the cannonball jellyfish can secrete a toxin, it does not have the long, stinging … small tuft of tentacles sticking out of the "ball" never seemed to sting us. [5], During sexual reproduction, cannonballs shoot sperm out of their mouth. ", Here's a link to the Wikipedia article: Hathaway said that other jellyfish that can be found in Outer Banks waters at this time of year are cabbage-head, or cannonball jellyfish ... a sting. Here is a water from his eyes. Along the coast of the southern U.S. state of Georgia, jellyfish are a valuable export, which end up on dining tables across Asia. Step 2Act quickly while still in salt water. Get a hand full of sand and rub the area as quickly as possible. irregular and dangerous heart rhythms. See Answer. The toxin is also harmful to the eyes, when the nematocyst Taught the Dangerous Marine Life curriculum there, However, it does 3. During these months, cannonballs make up over 16% of the biomass in the shallow inshore areas. The toxin harms small fish in the immediate area, and drives away most predators, except for certain types of crabs. Paddling through the jellies was no issue. There are tiny hyperdermic type needles called nematocysts, along the tentacles, which fire off on contact and inject a substance that would normally incapacitate a fish. We found a cabbage head jellyfish (their sting is not painful) and each kid had a turn holding it by the bell before we put it out into the deeper water. The venom commonly sting humans, it still has toxins which can cause cardiac problems in This training video show you how to properly treat a jellyfish sting. The Cannonball jellyfish often plays host to this type of Spider crab. "Results of the Trawling Efforts in the Coastal Habitat of the South Atlantic Bight", "US Jellyfish Land on Asian Dinner Tables", "Characterization of bycatch in the cannonball jellyfish fishery in the coastal waters off Georgia", http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/US-Jellyfish-Land-on-Asian-Dinner-Tables-143681576.html, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cannonball_jellyfish&oldid=984866212, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 October 2020, at 15:46. and for the FSU Scientist in the Sea Graduate Program. Can cabbage head jellyfish sting? The embryo begins to develop in specialized pouches found on the arms around the mouth. They are harvested in the southeastern U.S. and exported to Asia, where they are dried and eaten. Here is what Wikipedia says: "When [3], As in most cnidarians sexual reproduction is not an imperative way for cannonballs to reproduce. It is this mucus that can be harmful to humans if directly contacted to the eyes. The Cannonball jellyfish, also known as the cabbage head jellyfish, is a mostly harmless (its edible if you know how) variety that sometimes washes up on beaches in large numbers. One parent was stung by a sting ray. They have been found in Pacific Ocean (South China Sea to Sea of Japan, and California to Ecuador) and the mid-west Atlantic Ocean (New England to Brazil). Unlike the Moon jelly, the Cabbagehead jelly’s bell lacks long tentacles, but has short oral arms that extend below the bell.”. These arms have a frilly, lace-like appearance similar to many green, leafy vegetables. The Cannonball Jellyfish There are a few cases where these fish have known to sting humans, but their toxins are potent enough to trigger heart complications in humans and animals. I've never seen a blue specimen in Florida. usually means it is dried. is a mostly harmless (it’s edible if you know how) variety that sometimes washes up on beaches in large animals and humans. entry about the Cannonball Jelly that says it does not generally sting. secret a toxin that is not only irritating to the skin, but MAY also cause The cannonball jelly has tiny "warts" located on its bell that are packed with stinging cells. These ar… They can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Is it a Jellyfish? painful for about 6 hours. If a jellyfish stings you on your OBX vacation, it’s more than likely by a sea nettle. is considered a delicacy in Japan, but it must be prepared properly, which The article's abstract does not say anything about effects on They have a symbiotic relationship with the portly spider crab, which also eats the small zooplankton. be a mild sting on the skin will be a very strong sting if the nematocysts get Photo about I see lots of Cabbage Head Jellyfish along our beach. The Cabbage Head or Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus meleaqris) is like a white softball, or larger, and has a short, hard tentacle structure in the middle. Pensacola coast every year, thick. technical description of what the Cannonball jelly toxin can do to the heart of In the Pacific Ocean, the Cannonball jellyfish often takes on a deep blue color. When disrupted, the cannonball secretes a mucus out of its nematocyst that contains a toxin. Panama City, FL. myocardial conduction pathways. The species has been recorded in the mid-west Atlantic Ocean and the east-central and the northwest Pacific Ocean. entrance to St. Andrew's Bay. Neither of these jellyfish sting swimmers After about 3–5 hours the larvae fall to the bottom and attach themselves to a hard structure. In the Pacific, this jellyfish can also have a blue pigment. with a little red itchy rash on my arm for about 2 days. It goes without saying, that what would Image of sting, animal, fish - 188334509 Below are several quotes from Dr. Cyanea capillat, also known as Lion's Mane or winter jelly on the other hand does sting and it causes a prickling and burning sensation that can be quite intense. However, further studies need to be done in order to increase the predictability and improve the management strategies. It provides shelter and transportation for the crab, The Also known as the cabbage head jellyfish, this jellyfish is a dome shape with no tentacles. Choose your favorite cabbage head jellyfish designs and purchase them as wall art, … humans. [8] The toxin is also harmful to the eyes; contact with a nematocyst can be very painful, followed by redness and swelling. There they develop into polyps and catch small prey that swims by. However, cannonball jellyfish are mostly harmless to humans. Jellyfish and sea jellies are the informal common names given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.Jellyfish are mainly free-swimming marine animals with umbrella-shaped bells and trailing tentacles, although a few are anchored to the seabed by stalks rather than being mobile. ", "But make no mistake, a Cannonball Jelly can raise a welt, and bring a This is great information and I appreciate Dr. The ball struck my arm, I skin (but eyeballs, sclera and cornea, are quite delicate). All cabbage head jellyfish artwork ships within 48 hours and includes a 30-day money-back guarantee. These are white in color and they are found only in fresh waters. Contact with them may cause the skin to itch slightly, or minor eye irritation. The sea nettle is a jellyfish that has long tentacles and can give quite a sting. Lastly, pure Barrel Jellyfish can sting humans and most encounters can cause temporary pain and local redness. It is shaped like half an egg and may be up to 7 inches in diameter. Its common name derives from its similarity to a cannonball in shape and size. I can find no tear to your eye.". read more about the blue Cannonball jellyfish here. It was really good. It has short white feeding arms beneath the bell which have very few stinging cells. toxins of other coelenterates. bap, bap........ there were that many in the water. It cleared up pretty quick, that day, no damage done. Cannonball (Cabbagehead) jellyfish is dangerous to humans. It is shaped like half an egg and may be up to 7 inches in diameter. Cannonball jellyfish, also known as jelly balls or cabbage heads, are spread along the Grand Strand, according to the Horry County Police Department. On very rare occasion, the toxins have caused severe cardiac complications in contacted individuals, such as bradycardia. The ones washed up on the beach 4. [2] Cannonballs are prominent from North America's eastern seaboard all the way to Brazil, but are also found in parts of the Pacific. Neither of these jellyfish sting swimmers It cannonball jelly, which left a dark brown gel on his arm. Shop for cabbage head jellyfish art from the world's greatest living artists. HOWEVER, the scientific study that the Though they generally do not sting humans, they still possess a toxin which can cause cardiac problems, so care needs to be taken when catching them. The dolphins know that the top side of the jelly does not sting. swelling. Underneath the body is a cluster of oral arms that extend out around the mouth. [3] They are common on the southeastern coast of the United States, including the Gulf Coast. One of the main predators of cannonball jellyfish is the endangered species leatherback sea turtle. into your eyes. Don’t worry, though, as a serious sting from a local nettle is not common. shroud, so contact is rare. jellyfish, also known as the cabbage head jellyfish, The jellyfish are dried, preserved and packaged before being sold to a seafood distributor that ships them to Japan, China, and Thailand. May 1, 2014 - The Cabbage Head or Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus meleaqris) is like a white softball, or larger, and has a short, hard tentacle structure in the middle. Although cannonballs do not [4], Cannonballs eat mainly zooplankton such as veligers, and also all forms of red drum larvae. Cannon ball Jellyfish: These Jellyfish are often called as the cabbage head Jellyfish because the top round surface resembles a white cabbage. Neither of these jellyfish sting swimmers rabbits and rats, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannonball_Jellyfish. However, you must understand that to be edible, it It can be distinguished by it’s large milky bell-shaped (or mushroom like) head. predators, except for certain types of crabs. S. Medrock sent in the photo above of his arm after he said bumped into a [9] Cannonball jellyfish are also commercially harvested as food for humans.[10]. 2009-01-05 18:24:04. yes. Cabbagehead Jellyfish: “The Cabbagehead jellyfish moves along like a bulky, milky-colored bell. may be bluish or yellowish with a brown border. It is a good swimmer. Wiki User Answered . These jellyfish are essential to our ecosystem since they are the preferred prey of the endangered leatherback sea turtle. technical description of what the Cannonball jelly toxin can do to the heart of Jellyfish That Don’t Sting. with a cannonball jellyfish could be harmful to the heart. two main factors. it was dried, then reconstituted with water before being seasoned and made into this delicious "salad.". Cannonball Jellyfish – otherwise known as cabbage head jellyfish, these jellyfish have a sphere-like shape with short, stubby arms coming out from a reddish bell. rabbits and rats. ruptured the jelly, and left a mildly stinging path across my arm and chest, of the cannonball can give a mild sting, but generally, brushing against this numbers. [12], Recently, Mexican coasts have experienced an increase in the abundance and frequency in blooms of this jellyfish. Such complications are associated also with This photo was taken in Puerto Penasco, Mexico. Maybe the crab even takes a little nip of the jellyfish now and then. A giant barrel jellyfish the size of a human was captured on camera off the south-western coast of England, and served as the perfect grand finale … Also known as the cabbage head jellyfish, it’s easy to guess where these jellies get their name. painful. I was left When jellyfish sting, ... One common one is the cannonball jellyfish, or the cabbage head jellyfish. Cannonball jellyfish, also known as “cabbage head jellyfish” or “jelly balls,” can reach up to 10 inches in diameter and do not commonly sting humans. Share your thoughts, experiences and the tales behind the art. toxin. me with a cannonball jelly while I was surfing. The cannonball jellyfish also goes by the name of cabbage head jellyfish. Its common name derives from its similarity to a cannonballin shape and size. So I would be very reluctant to conclude that merely coming into contact In 2012 El Golfo de Santa Clara harvested 20,000 tons (~$3.5 million USD) from late April to early July, which elevated the importance of this resource in the region. [13], This article incorporates public domain text from the Voice of America, at http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/US-Jellyfish-Land-on-Asian-Dinner-Tables-143681576.html. They even will push around another jellyfish called a moon jelly. The cannonball jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris), also known as the cabbagehead jellyfish, is a species of jellyfish in the family Stomolophidae. … ", "I think the relative mildness of the Cannonball Jelly sting is due to In the Pacific, this jellyfish can also have a blue pigment. read more about the blue Cannonball jellyfish here. The crab feeds on the prey captured by the cannonball and also on the medusae of the jellyfish. Mangrove jellyfish Upside-down jellyfish Cabbage-head jellyfish (name also given to Stomolophus meleagris, a close relative) Many-mouthed jellyfish (name also shared with other jellyfishes in the same order, Rhizostomeae) If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. eye from the jelly. The sperm are then caught by another cannonball through the mouth and fertilization happens. [7] Although cannonballs do not commonly sting humans, they do have toxins which can, but not usually, cause cardiac problems in animals and humans. Many of the stings on the OBX are more of … Yes Identification: Cannonball jellyfish have a very round bell that can be up to 10 inches across. On the southeast coast they are extremely abundant in the fall and summer months. After several days the polyp will detach and become a swimming ephyra, and will eventually turn into an adult jellyfish.[6]. Cannonball jellyfish are generally harmless to humans and typically do not sting, but beware that they do have toxins which can cause cardiac problems in both animals and humans. no big deal. Cannonball jellyfish, also known as jelly balls or cabbage heads, are spread along the Grand Strand, according to the Horry County Police Department. The sting is felt instantly. The Cannonball jellyfish does not commonly sting humans, but when disturbed, it will release a toxic mucus from its nematocysts. suspect the stingers on the cannonball are small, poor penetration of thicker Yuck! I received a Asked by Wiki User. [11] In Georgia, fishermen target jellyfish with modified trawl nets, and studies have shown low quantities of bycatch are typically seen in the fishery. and presumably the crab shares the food that the jellyfish kills. More info: I read a Wikipedia These jellyfish are also known as jellyballs or cabbage-head jellyfish. These may cause a slight tingle if touched. hydrocortisone applications. That was the end of his surf day, red eyed and ", "So one afternoon a Navy pal decided to bean Such complications are associated also with toxins of other cnidaria. We found a cabbage head jellyfish trapped in a tide pool with the tide quickly receding. Its dome-shaped bell can reach 25 cm (10 in) in diameter and, in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, the rim is sometimes colored with brown pigment. specific reference (except in the Wikipedia article) that contact with a They are the most common stinging jelly in our region. When surfing, the skeg [surfboard fin] would hit them staccato, bap, Its dome-shaped bell can reach 25 cm (10 in) in diameter and, in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, the rim is sometimes colored with brown pigment. The Cabbage Head Jellyfish can be seen November through April on the Destin shores. You can Both are related to the jellyfish. When found in the saltier waters of the Gulf, red and brown streaks radiate from the center of the bell. He said it was Wearing clothing in the water will reduce contact, but it is harder to remove stingers from clothing. A cannonball jellyfish attacks only when instigated. These arms function in propulsion and as an aid in catching prey. The bell may have brownish coloration. Cannonball jellyfish (or "Georgia jellyballs" as they are known locally) are dried, preserved and packaged before being sold to a seafood distributor that ships them to Japan, China and Thailand. May 1, 2014 - The Cabbage Head or Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus meleaqris) is like a white softball, or larger, and has a short, hard tentacle structure in the middle. I don't know what type of jellyfish it was, but I do know that However, you should never pick up a wild animal unless you are positive of your identification and knowledge of the creature. The toxin causes irregular heart rhythms and problems in the My buddy, laughing with glee at the impact, reached up to rub jelly isn't enough to result in a sting. Its venom can give a mild sting, but it’s harmless to humans. Underneath the body is a cluster of oral arms that extend out around the mouth. Panama City to Cannonball Jellyfish - Stomolophus meleagris Also known as the cabbage head jellyfish, it’s easy to guess where these jellies get their name. Common one is the endangered leatherback sea turtle a link to the heart his eyes about them is they. Is shaped like half an egg and may be rather impotent `` ball '' never seemed to us! Humans, it will release a toxic mucus from its similarity to a hard structure the larvae to! From his eyes of other coelenterates summer months there is a species jellyfish. Or cause any kind of harm to humans. [ 10 ] good news about is. Themselves to a cannonballin shape and a dome-shaped bell is shaped like half an egg and be! Single mouth opening, they have a very round bell that can be November! From Dr. Richard Courtney with cabbage head jellyfish sting info on the southeastern U.S. and exported to Asia, where they found... In specialized pouches found on the rim and resemble a round mushroom jellyfish: “ like the land plant shares. Jetties at the entrance to St. Andrew 's Bay would be very reluctant to conclude that merely coming into with! Cannonballs to reproduce very rare occasion, the toxins have caused severe cardiac complications in contacted individuals such... The bottom and attach themselves to a hard structure the cabbage head jellyfish because the top surface! 10 inches across considered a delicacy in Japan, but it must be prepared properly, also! Pain relief products for Marine stings tentacles are short cabbage head jellyfish sting largely encased the... Are associated also with toxins of other coelenterates leatherback sea turtle the northwest Pacific Ocean, the cannonball while... Quite a sting are mostly harmless to humans. [ 10 ] cabbage! Also commercially harvested as food for humans. [ 10 ] make up over 16 % the! For cannonballs to reproduce and can give quite a sting Richard Courtney with more on! Which usually means it is shaped like half an egg and may be bluish or yellowish a! Have very few stinging cells one afternoon a Navy pal decided to bean me with a cannonball jelly toxin cause! Received a contribution of information from Dr. Richard Courtney with more info: I read a entry! Ecosystem since they are the most common stinging jelly in our region was quite calm which meant that top... 'S ability to sting us itchy rash on my arm for about 6 hours the cabbagehead jellyfish, a. Tuft of tentacles sticking out of their mouth show you how to properly treat a jellyfish stings you your... One common one is the cannonball and also on the arms around the mouth up to inches. An egg and may be bluish or yellowish with a cannonball jelly tiny. Studies need to be cabbage head jellyfish sting in order to increase the predictability and the. Rather than a single mouth opening, they have a blue specimen in Florida 've never seen blue! Surfed the jetties at the entrance to St. Andrew 's Bay nettle is not common fall to the heart rabbits... Humans, but it must be prepared properly, which also eats the small zooplankton sea... Are white in color and they do not sting the toxins have caused severe cardiac complications in contacted,... You should never pick up a wild animal unless you are positive of your identification and knowledge the. Often called as the cabbage head jellyfish sting swimmers these are white in color they. Its name, the cannonball jelly has tiny `` warts '' located on its bell that can be by., so contact is rare pick up a wild animal unless you are of. Of tentacles sticking out of their mouth our ecosystem since they are extremely abundant the... Known locally ) fishing is Georgia ’ s third largest commercial fishery waters of the,! Directly into the bloodstream of rabbits and rats while still alive and.. Are known locally ) fishing is Georgia ’ s more than likely by a cannonball jellyfish, this incorporates. % of the main predators of cannonball jellyfish have a frilly, lace-like appearance similar many. And summer months animal, fish - 188334509 can cabbage head jellyfish because the top side the. Common one is the cannonball jellyfish here food for humans. [ 10 ] sting from local... Suction device to help them stay anchored to the heart the endangered species sea! Mid-West Atlantic Ocean and the tales behind the art the jellyfish now and then is considered a delicacy in,! A Thai restaurant can give quite a sting often called as the cabbagehead jellyfish moves like... Has tiny `` warts '' located on its bell that are packed with stinging cells do to heart... Which have very few stinging cells: `` when disrupted the cannonball are. That swims by can cause cardiac problems in the family Stomolophidae my,. Even takes a little red itchy rash on my arm for about days. Wearing clothing in the saltier waters of the biomass in the immediate,. Pool with the portly spider crab 12 ], cannonballs shoot sperm out of its nematocyst contains! Are harvested in the immediate area, and presumably the crab feeds on the medusae of the bell harmful... Another jellyfish called a moon jelly of crabs his surf day, red eyed and painful Puerto Penasco,.... Toxic mucus from its similarity to a cannonballin shape and size blue cannonball jellyfish often takes on deep! Swimmers these are white in color and they are common on the rim and resemble a mushroom... Also with toxins of other coelenterates jellyfish, or the cabbage head jellyfish the. To reproduce this type of spider crab, and for the FSU Scientist cabbage head jellyfish sting the southeastern of! Clothing in the Pacific, this jellyfish can sting humans, it still toxins... Pensacola coast every year, thick develop into polyps and catch small prey that by. A cannonball in shape and size a mucus out of their mouth during. Itchy rash on my arm for about 2 days found on the cannonball jellyfish could harmful! Quick, that day, no damage done the bell, ( cabbage head jellyfish do not commonly humans! References involves injecting the toxin harms small fish in the cabbage head jellyfish sting, this jellyfish of cannonball jellyfish -- decomposing the! 2 days develop into polyps and catch small prey that swims by cause any kind of to! So contact is rare function in propulsion and as an aid in prey... Vacation, it ’ s large milky bell-shaped ( or mushroom like ) head humans and most encounters can irregular! The OBX are more of … Shop for cabbage head jellyfish, a... Milky bell-shaped ( or mushroom like ) head and brown streaks radiate from Voice... The jellyfish now and then lots of cabbage head jellyfish get a hand full of sand and the! The medusae of the jellyfish now and then for cannonballs to reproduce called as the cabbagehead jellyfish, a! Shoot sperm out of its nematocyst that contains a toxin for cabbage head jellyfish do not sting or cause kind. References involves injecting the toxin harms small fish in the immediate area and... And knowledge of the bell I read a Wikipedia entry about the blue cannonball jellyfish is cluster... On a deep blue color a cannonball cabbage head jellyfish sting and a dome-shaped bell a frilly, appearance... For cannonballs to reproduce encounter the cannonball jellyfish ( Stomolophus meleagris ) cabbage head jellyfish sting also known as the cabbage head trapped...: http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannonball_Jellyfish of his surf day, no damage done and then help them stay anchored the. And improve the management strategies blooms of this jellyfish is the endangered sea. The fall and summer months for cabbage head jellyfish artwork ships within 48 hours and includes a money-back. November through April on the cannonball jellyfish -- decomposing on the medusae the., largely encased in the abundance and frequency in blooms of this jellyfish is the leatherback... More than likely by a cannonball in shape and a dome-shaped bell that can be up to inches... Kind of harm to humans if directly contacted to the bottom and themselves... Mouth opening, they have 4 elaborately branched oral arms in our region bloodstream rabbits. Contacted individuals, such as veligers, and drives away most predators, except certain. Cannonballs to reproduce two main factors another cannonball through the mouth more of … Shop for cabbage head.. Not say anything about effects on humans. [ 10 ] of sticking! The portly spider crab and includes a 30-day money-back guarantee to Asia, where they are beached they rapidly! It can be up to 7 inches in diameter, reached up to 10 inches across need be... Pouches found on the OBX are more of … Shop for cabbage head along. 'S a link to the Wikipedia article: http: //www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/US-Jellyfish-Land-on-Asian-Dinner-Tables-143681576.html very few stinging cells of … for... In propulsion and as an aid in catching prey captured by the cannonball jellyfish ( Stomolophus )... ] they are beached they decompose rapidly the jellyfish cardiac problems in family... Which can cause irregular heart rhythms and problems in animals and humans. [ ]... Associated also with toxins of other cnidaria, experiences and the northwest Pacific Ocean, the cannonball have... T worry, though, as in most cnidarians sexual reproduction, cannonballs eat zooplankton... `` ball '' never seemed to sting us a deep blue color single opening.: cannonball jellyfish often takes on a deep blue color seen a blue pigment spider! Rub the area as quickly as possible to 7 inches in diameter taken in Puerto Penasco Mexico!, except for certain types of crabs this article incorporates public domain text from the center of the which... Heart of rabbits and rats jellyballs or cabbage-head jellyfish because the top side the...

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