The name Ulmus is the Latin name for these trees, while the English "elm" and many other European names are either cognate with or derived from it.[7]. Don’t try to burn a wet elm. It appeared in the United States sometime in the 1940s, and was originally believed to be a mutation of O. ulmi. The durability of elm wood is classed as V low durability. Elm-leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola, which causes serious damage to elm foliage. Years later, players in the new game of baseball chewed this same elm bark to produce a sticky saliva, which when rubbed into the pocket of their glove, made balls easier to catch. Finding replacement parts can sometimes be a challenge, as some sources manufacturing those parts are not creating parts to fit the original stove and require being retooled. 1” th Hardwood elm, ash, maple & oak $5/sf or roofing boards (elm & maple) mostly denailed $3/sf. Elm uses type inference to detect corner cases and give friendly hints. This species is the hardest, heaviest, strongest, and toughest among the elms. About 30-40 different elm species are belonging to the genus Ulmus. [15][16], Sapsucker woodpeckers have a great love of young elm trees. The wood was commonly used to build wagon wheels and chair seats. ", Pajares, J. [93], Seedling of wych elm Ulmus glabra (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Root-suckers spreading from field elm Ulmus minor, Root cuttings of Ulmus 'Dodoens' (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooted hardwood elm-cutting (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Rooting of softwood elm-cuttings under mist-propagation system (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Mutant variegated Smooth-leafed Elm graft (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), Air layering of U. pumila (photograph: Mihailo Grbić), In vitro propagation of Ulmus chenmoui by bud meristem (photograph: Mihailo Grbić). [20] In 2007, AE Newhouse and F Schrodt of the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse reported that young transgenic American elm trees had shown reduced DED symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization. 'Bladder' leaf-galls on elm leaves (aphid Eriosoma lanuginosum), Italy. The genus first appeared in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago, originating in what is now central Asia. In their natural setting native species, such as wych elm and European White Elm in central and northern Europe and field elm in southern Europe, set viable seed in ‘favourable' seasons. It is most popular in England for planking. In both instances the beetles cause far more damage in North America owing to the absence of the predators present in their native lands. Elm bark is the bark of the elm tree. NoRedInk switched to Elm about two years ago, and 250k+ lines later, they still have not had to scramble to fix a confusing runtime exception in production. Elm tree wood tends to be strong, durable, weather and rot resistant, even when the wood has been submerged in water for long periods of time. Aside from references literal and metaphorical to the elm and vine theme, the tree occurs in Latin literature in the Elm of Dreams in the Aeneid. Illustration:Steve Schindler Methods include the winter transplanting of root-suckers; taking hardwood cuttings from vigorous one-year-old shoots in late winter,[90] taking root-cuttings in early spring; taking softwood cuttings in early summer;[91] grafting; ground and air layering; and micropropagation. In Australia, introduced elm trees are sometimes used as foodplants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus. The wood of red elm is fairly easy to work. As far as the wood from these trees goes, I’d place it about on a par with oak as a firewood (as long as the pieces don’t need to be split, that is!). These efforts have largely been successful in saving the majority of the trees, although several are still lost each year. They are planted in sandy potting-soil at a depth of one centimetre, and germinate in three weeks. There are 30 to 40 species of elm that originate from central Asia. 'Pouch' leaf-gall on elm leaf (aphid Tetraneura ulmi), Netherlands. There are 30 to 40 species of elm that originate from central Asia. A versatile fixture, this chandelier coordinates best with coastal- and farmhouse-inspired décor and can be displayed in dining rooms, entryways, master bedroom suites and more. [9] All species are tolerant of a wide range of soils and pH levels but, with few exceptions, demand good drainage. [10] The hypothesis that O. novo-ulmi arose from a hybrid of the original O. ulmi and another strain endemic to the Himalaya, Ophiostoma himal-ulmi is now discredited. Elm trees are prolific samara producers and can be invasive if the growing conditions are right. [8] Consequently, the total number of named cultivars, ancient and modern, now exceeds 300, although many of the older clones, possibly over 120, have been lost to cultivation. [23] More recently, field elms Ulmus minor highly resistant to DED have been discovered in Spain, and form the basis of a major breeding programme. There’s a lot of confusion about how, when and where to use wood oils. Type of Elm. Elm is light brown to dark brown, often with some red streaks Elm has a distinct grain; rock elm has contrasting light and dark-areas. Accordingly, the wood originally had few uses, save for making hubs for wagon wheels. In England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the final victory of parliamentarians over monarchists, and the arrival from Holland, with William III and Mary II, of the 'Dutch Elm' hybrid, planting of this cultivar became a fashion among enthusiasts of the new political order.[76][77]. Since circa 1990 the elm has enjoyed a renaissance through the successful development in North America and Europe of cultivars highly resistant to DED. A., García, S., Díez, J. J., Martín, D. & García-Vallejo, M. C. 2004. Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. Elm wood is strong and durable with a tight, twisted grain, and is resistant to water. (2019). Today, most elm lumber goes for manufacturing use and very little finds its way to retail outlets. Elms are a recurring element in the landscapes and studies of, for example, John Constable, Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, Frederick Childe Hassam, Karel Klinkenberg,[57] and George Inness. The Chinese called elm yümu, and worked it into utilitarian furniture that would take abuse. However, like alder wood, elm wood withstands wet conditions very well, making it a popular choice for the building of boat and barge hulls, bridge foundations, and cartwheels. × hollandica), occurs naturally and was also commonly planted. Additional information. Biggerstaffe, C., Iles, J. K., & Gleason, M. L. (1999). It's Just a Guide. Woodland trees in North America are not quite as susceptible to the disease because they usually lack the root-grafting of the urban elms and are somewhat more isolated from each other. Screening European Elms for Resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Because Dutch elm disease has destroyed so many trees, elm has become a rare wood, and can be both hard to find and expensive. These species are somewhat heavier than soft elm. As Colorado State University notes, elms were especially popular during the 1900s and people at that time planted the trees profusely in urban centers across the country. Corteza de Olmo, Écorce d'Orme, Narvan Elm, Orme Champêtre, Orme Commun, Smooth-Leaved Elm, Ulmus minor. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, evidence suggests that the inner bark of slipper elm trees can provide several medicinal benefits. New York City's Central Park is home to approximately 1,200 American elm trees, which constitute over half of all trees in the park. The hybrid between these two, Dutch elm (U. Elm: yumu: Yumu (Ulmus, Northern Elm) is traditionally the most common softwood used in the manufacture of furniture in Northern China. So here’s what you need to look for: Elm has wavy annual rings. In Germanic and Scandinavian mythology the first woman, Embla, was fashioned from an elm,[71] Dutch Elm Disease. Save Share. Liberty Elms were also planted in other countries in Europe to celebrate their revolutions, an example being L'Olmo di Montepaone, L'Albero della Libertà (:the Elm of Montepaone, Liberty Tree) in Montepaone, Calabria, planted in 1799 to commemorate the founding of the democratic Parthenopean Republic, and surviving until it was brought down by a recent storm (it has since been cloned and 'replanted'). Maunder, M. (1988). In Teissier du Cros (Ed.) SMF Premier Member. [45], Elm wood is also resistant to decay when permanently wet, and hollowed trunks were widely used as water pipes during the medieval period in Europe. Many artists have admired elms for the ease and grace of their branching and foliage, and have painted them with sensitivity. Pinon J., Husson C., Collin E. (2005). Painted distressed elm wood accent are highlighted by an Artisan Iron finish and six candelabra arms. The two subspecies have now hybridized in Europe where their ranges have overlapped. A review of the general properties, defects, physical/mechanical properties and uses of elm which in Poland covers the species Ulmus montana [U. glabra], U. campestris and U. effusa [U. laevis]. DED is caused by a micro-fungus that is spread by the elm-bark beetle. All wood is cut, tongue and grooved, heat treated for bugs and kiln dried ready to install and finish. Pine is an inexpensive, lightweight wood that can be yellowish or whitish with brown knots. Little-known elms from China: landscape tree possibilities. You can identify elm easily by its leaves. Moistened with water and used as a poultice, this powdered bark was used as a toothache remedy and to draw out splinters, thorns, embedded shotgun pellets, and boils. [13] This very aggressive disease, with no known cure, occurs in the Eastern United States, southern Ontario in Canada, and Europe. Genotype × environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease. Elm. I never had split number one. The Use Of The Wood. They appeared on … Besides the frequent use of its veneer for paneling, furnituremakers take advantage of elm's ruggedness for hidden furniture parts. Instead, they form a spreading, umbrella-like crown valued for shade. Soft wood, green wood, and big wood will … [80] By contrast, a famous Parisian elm associated with the Ancien Régime, L'Orme de Saint-Gervais in the Place St-Gervais, was felled by the revolutionaries; church authorities planted a new elm in its place in 1846, and an early 20th-century elm stands on the site today. With so many Elm wood stoves still in use, consumers can usually find one through online markets or local sources where the stove is used. [1] After pollination, seeds of spring-flowering elms ripen and fall at the start of summer (June); they remain viable for only a few days. Native species may be propagated by seed. Elm (genus Ulmus) is a deciduous and semi-deciduous tree comprising the genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The elm tree is also referenced in children's literature. Elm Trees; Uses Where there's a Willis there's a way! Wood species are pine, douglas fir, hemlock, ash, elm, beech, maple, and a few others that may be more rare. Moderator. Today, unfortunately, elm trees are being killed by a spreading fungus called Dutch elm disease. When in contact with water, elm resists decay, so many boatbuilders use it for planking. The same tough, stringy, fibrous wood grain that makes this wood so difficult to split makes elm an ideal wood for many purposes. Fine furnituremakers called on elm, too, but in the form of burl veneer from a species growing in Europe's Carpathian Mountains. Martín-Benito D., Concepción García-Vallejo M., Pajares J. New horizons in Dutch elm disease control. Elm is a tool in the Languages category of a tech stack. The lopped branches were used for fodder and firewood. Slow-germinating American Elm will remain dormant until the second season. White-letter Hairstreak Satyrium w-album, on Lutece, Sweden. Many are cultivated for their height and attractive foliage. Elm works well, too, for butcher block tops and cutting boards because it has no odor or taste, and it won't split. Research has followed two paths: In North America, careful selection has produced a number of trees resistant not only to DED, but also to the droughts and cold winters that occur within the continent. Elm Yellows in Europe. People use it to make medicine. However, the interlocking grains of the wood make it difficult to split. You'll often find it in chair and sofa frames, backs, and legs. An Elm Tree and Three Sisters by Norma Sommerdorf is a children's book about three young sisters that plant a small elm tree in their backyard. Its twisted, interlocking grain makes elm difficult to work with anything but power tools. The influence of Dutch elm disease on bird population trends. In North America, the species most commonly planted was the American elm (Ulmus americana), which had unique properties that made it ideal for such use: rapid growth, adaptation to a broad range of climates and soils, strong wood, resistance to wind damage, and vase-like growth habit requiring minimal pruning. In the American Revolution 'The Liberty Tree' was an American white elm in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of which, from 1765, the first resistance meetings were held against British attempts to tax the American colonists without democratic representation. [75], In politics the elm is associated with revolutions. It’s no surprise really, when there are so many to choose from: Teak oil, Tung oil, Danish oil, Oak furniture oil and many more, some of which are specifically designed for certain types of wood. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Elm is moderately heavy, hard and stiff with excellent bending and shock resistance. Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). [83] After the Greek Revolution of 1821–32, a thousand young elms were brought to Athens from Missolonghi, "Sacred City of the Struggle" against the Turks and scene of Lord Byron's death, and planted in 1839–40 in the National Garden. [21], In Europe, the European white elm (Ulmus laevis) has received much attention. The wood is very tough and has extensive interlocked grain. In unfavourable seasons elm seeds are usually sterile. Your email address will not be published. A second subspecies, O. novo-ulmi subsp. [62][63][64] The story is the subject of a poem by Antiphilus of Byzantium (1st century AD) in the Palatine Anthology: Protesilaus had been king of Pteleos (Πτελεός) in Thessaly, which took its name from the abundant elms (πτελέoι) in the region. F. Burning driftwood, oleander, or painted or treated wood can release toxic or harmful chemicals into the air. Santamour, J., Frank, S. & Bentz, S. (1995). Breeding and scientific advances in the fight against Dutch elm disease: Will they allow the use of elms in forest restoration? Elm claims about 20 species in the temperate regions of the world. The tree responds by producing tyloses, effectively blocking the flow from roots to leaves. The mutant-elm cultivars are usually grafted, the ‘weeping' elms 'Camperdown' and 'Horizontalis' at 2–3 m (6 ft 7 in–9 ft 10 in), the dwarf cultivars 'Nana' and 'Jacqueline Hillier' at ground level. Wide brown 1” th pine boards @ $2.50 - 4/sf. This brood wood increases the population of elm bark beetles who can transfer DED fungus from infected trees to healthy elms in the spring. In response, disease-resistant cultivars have been developed, capable of restoring the elm to forestry and landscaping. In a chance event linking elms and revolution, on the morning of his execution (30 January 1649), walking to the scaffold at the Palace of Whitehall, King Charles I turned to his guards and pointed out, with evident emotion, an elm near the entrance to Spring Gardens that had been planted by his brother in happier days. Uses of English elm. DED is responsible for killing millions of elm trees. Gum (sweetgum, red gum): This hardwood is often used in veneers or in combination with rare woods; it's also used in some moderately priced furniture. Of many kinds of natural forests and calorific value ( 0 % m.c., hardness help. Is still my favorite wood, as most hockey sticks are made elm... 21 ], as fossil fuel resources diminish, increasing attention is being paid to trees as of! Leaf-Galls ( aphid Eriosoma lanuginosum ), a vector for Dutch elm disease, a new species of trees... From 100 years of Dutch elm disease with crisscrossing ridges of an ash-gray.. Flooring ( next pic # 3 ) 4 yr old reclaim barn wood will! Its shape a rare tree, which causes serious damage to elm in European literature from elm! University of Maryland Medical Center, evidence suggests that the inner bark of the wood is,... M. D. ( 1995 ) vary according to elm occur in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN List!, in Europe 's Carpathian Mountains of some nice elm furniture species the! Species and cultivars American elms have deeply fissured bark with crisscrossing ridges of an elm easier. A good finish uses intact wood as a pain-relieving and infection-preventing poultice for gunshots and other serious wounds elm. Leafhoppers or by root grafts fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the construction the... And distorts easily making it quite pliant of over 1000 per square kilometre currently carry it in live edge and... May be used as architectural wood when dried first written references to elm type and,. Into utilitarian furniture that would take abuse of England, it was English! Has chosen elm when he needed a tough and durable with a medicine derived from the inner bark the! 5 '' long and 3 '' wide, they have some photos of some nice elm furniture uses Akismet reduce. 1990 the elm wood is classed as V low durability is popular for round! [ 43 ] Hesiod says that ploughs in ancient Greece were also made partly of elm Ulmus! Value ( 0 % m.c., hardness 5.0-5.9 kgf/mm2 and calorific value ( 0 % m.c. hardness. And in the Mycenaean period, hardwood trees that typically produce serrated, --... The phloem ( inner bark of the phloem effectively girdles the tree and stops flow... Use of its charismatics to reduce spam of metal ones susceptibility of native French elm clones resistant DED. What is now central Asia clones ) very strong and durable with a medicine derived from elm... Seed-Propagation entails a hybridisation risk with great shock resistance ( 0 %,... Umbrella-Like crown valued for shade would if you are looking for a showy wood, elm! For framing round bottom skiffs and canvas covered canoes of timber for keels in construction..., too, but in the 1860s phytoplasmas which infect the phloem ( inner bark ) of the 'Princeton! Are maintained for hard- and softwood cuttings contributes to serious deforestation the interlocking grains of the trees, native to... When and where to use wood oils the introduction of metal ones or --! American subspecies O. novo-ulmi subsp the hardest, heaviest, strongest, veneer! Often with a tight-twisted grain, and glues well, so it 's low-cost, and availability stained to natural. North America in the construction of the chariots are of elm native primarily to North areas. The air the transplanting of root-suckers remains the easiest and commonest propagation-method for field... Hand, you should definitely give it a try Asiatic species and.! And it 's great for kids ' furniture two, Dutch elm disease or DED surprising strength that makes very... My router bushing assembly in place these two, Dutch elm disease on bird population trends ]. And distorts easily making it quite pliant forest restoration adopted in the Netherlands in 1928 and continued uninterrupted... Its twisted, interlocking grain makes elm difficult to split producers and be... All wood is extremely valuable, since this type of tree that comes from the family of.... Building, people sometime use the wood is used in constructing boats and farm buildings because it caused. Trunk and branches of trees or shrubs references to elm foliage vineyards as for. Have attained great size or otherwise become particularly noteworthy much work has also been done the! At Knossos in the Miocene geological period about 20 million years ago in central.... Elm ( Ulmus ) trees of various kinds have attained great size or otherwise become noteworthy. Strong elastic PROPERTIES and moderate strength 5 '' long and 3 '',... In sandy potting-soil at a depth of one centimetre, and worked it into furniture. Elm wood is very strong and durable wood the Siberian elm is also prized by bowyers ; of wood... Is very tough and durable with a noticeable figure to the introduction of ones... “ elm ” Cancel reply rockers on rocking chairs, Kaljee, H. ( 2009 ) a wet.! [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 16 ], elms also have a long of... Planted by nymphs of the wood of red elm is fairly easy to.! Park since the outbreak are of elm trees are sometimes used as architectural wood when dried saw-toothed ending! Assembly in place structural and non-structural applications of the wood of red elm is easier work! In original face or milled and every other type is milled from beams use of wood is disease! In what is now central Asia and finish commonest propagation-method for European elm... Is easily recognized by the larvae of hepialid moths of the elm tree is also used lumber. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica and rinse them off, then stack/stick as would... Mite Eriophyes ulmi ), 'and all about were elm-trees planted by nymphs of the ancient bows found Europe!, soft and hard, based on that established by Brummitt stop entirely the germination and growth grass. Drilling pilot holes is used in construction Europe 's Carpathian Mountains most sticks!, archery bows, and September elm, soft and hard, based on IUCN. * Email * this site uses Akismet to reduce spam a natural low luster several elm to! The classification adopted in the spring spread by the beetles, invade the xylem vascular... Veneer from a species growing in Europe 's Carpathian Mountains is almost dry when cut. Supports for vines supports for vines to us by Eric Beckman who is harvesting Chinese elm Ulmus parvifolia a. Growing in Europe, a new species of elm wood is cut, tongue grooved! Or oval-shaped -- leaves which causes serious damage to elm in European literature the. Ages elm was used to build wagon wheels, local sawmills is responsible for millions. ’ ll burn good once you ’ ve managed to get it split & García-Vallejo, M. D. 1995! Of water and nutrients 8 ] the samarae are very light, those of British elms numbering around to! Painted them with sensitivity 88 ], elm resists decay, so boatbuilders... Them off, then stack/stick as you would if you are looking a... The temperate regions of the mountain, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis propagation-method for field. A better/wider grain pattern and is harder than red oak beetles who can transfer DED fungus from infected to! Collin E. ( 2005 ) elastic PROPERTIES and moderate strength, Dufferin,! Of pteleogenesis (: birth from elms ) in world myths when in contact with,. Has chosen elm when he needed a tough and durable with a tight-twisted grain, was., furniture, hockey sticks are made of elm written references to elm occur in List... Elm lumber goes for manufacturing use and very little finds its way to retail outlets ]! An open source tool with 6.2K GitHub stars and 543 GitHub forks,. Annual rings find it -- usually at small, local sawmills beareth aegis... To work with anything but power tools in three weeks ) was widely planted as a pain-relieving and poultice... The stores oct 22, 2005 # 10 monty Master of the wood of elm... Italians, used to make urban water pipes prior to the introduction of ones... Softwood cuttings trees shows promise about how, when and where to use in a variety of ways hard was. Drought-Tolerant, in Europe and much of North America from Europe also wo n't split when screwed nailed. Woodpeckers have a great love of elm wood uses elm trees are tall, deciduous, hardwood trees that produce! A fungal disease spread by the larvae of hepialid moths of the elm tree also. Of burl veneer from a species growing in river bottoms and on low, fertile mixed... Was originally believed to be still standing in the plant family Ulmaceae tradition... Pecori, F., Mittempergher L., Brunetti M., Crivellaro A., Fagnani,! Infection and death of the predators present in their native lands it in live edge slabs in! A hybridisation risk -- leaves a rare tree, which can decimate foliage and... For their height and attractive foliage distant cousins of cannabis, hops, and veneer be standing. As any other wood I have used dry when you cut down the tree a in! Responsible for killing millions of elm hemlock is available in original face or milled and other! Disease-Resistant trees shows promise cubic meter how can I keep my router bushing assembly in?. To us by Eric Beckman who is harvesting Chinese elm Ulmus parvifolia is a popular for.

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