The Søren Kierkegaard Society USA was founded in 1979 by Robert L. Perkins† with the purpose of fostering the study and discussion of Kierkegaard's thought across all its dimensions and ramifications, including its sources and influence. 62, 2014, pp. The other great Norwegian national writer and poet Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910) was also deeply inspired by Kierkegaard. Soren Kierkegaard biography Soren Kierkegaard was born on the 15 th of May 1813 in the Danish capital Copenhagen and into a wealthy and prominent merchant family that already included six children. If the broken engagement was the cloud that hung over the first literary period, the Corsair debacle was the ghost that haunted the second. Kierkegaard: Influences and Stages in Life Contemporary Theology I: Hegel to Death of God Theologies In our last lecture at the very end, I began to talk about the life and the writings of Søren Kierkegaard. "[17], Kierkegaard's relationship to feminism is a troublesome one, Kierkegaard has been described as misogynistic, making "snide comments about woman’s nature, mocking with utmost irony her “great abilities” and sneering at the possibility of her emancipation" although Dera Sipe of Villanova University states that viewing Kierkegaard as a "straight misogynist is highly problematic". Search all of SparkNotes Search. He was a man of deep but gloomy and guilt-ridden piety who was haunted by the memory of having once cursed God as a boy and of having begun his family by getting his maid pregnant—and then marrying her—shortly after the death of his first wife. 1, 2013, pp. May based his The Meaning of Anxiety on Kierkegaard's The Concept of Anxiety. The Corsair took the bait, and for months Kierkegaard was the target of raucous ridicule, the greatest butt of jokes in Copenhagen. His father was a firmly committed to a strict approach to faith and life and sought to ensure that his family would grow up within a firmly Lutheran household. Language: en Pages: 228. Søren Kierkegaard's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th century philosophy, especially in the movements of Existentialism and Postmodernism. Søren Kierkegaard : biography 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855 Influence Many 20th-century philosophers, both theistic and atheistic, and theologians drew concepts from Kierkegaard, including the notions of angst, despair, and the importance of the individual. "The book as a whole contains much information on the genesis of Existentialism and on Kierkegaard's role in it." His father’s death in 1838 spurred him to complete his education, and he finished and defended a dissertation in philosophy, On the Concept of Irony, with Constant Reference to Socrates, in 1841. [20], Early translations of Kierkegaard into German were restricted to his post-1850 material (The Moment, the attack on the Lutheran Church) and appeared in the 1860s. [13] Kierkegaard's work The Diary of a Seducer has been re-published several times, including Princeton University Press' translation with John Updike's foreword and Penguin Books' series Great Loves. [7] Existentialist (often called "humanistic") psychologists and therapists include Ludwig Binswanger, Viktor Frankl, Erich Fromm, Carl Rogers, and Rollo May. Anthony Rudd's book Kierkegaard and the Limits of the Ethical and Alasdair MacIntyre's discussion of Kierkegaard in After Virtue and A Short History of Ethics did much to facilitate Kierkegaard's legacy in ethical thought in analytic philosophy. 20-21. Books about The Burden of Søren Kierkegaard. "The book as a whole contains much information on the genesis of Existentialism and on Kierkegaard's role in it." [10] Finally the celebrated Norwegian artist Edvard Munch (1863-1944) closely studied key concepts such as anxiety, and this influence is notable in some of his iconic paintings such as The Scream.[11]. The influence of Søren Kierkegaard Nandrásky expressed his personal relationship to Kierkegaard in his short essay O dojmoch z Dánska vo forme listu S. Kierkegaardovi. The collection includes approximately 20,000 book volumes, some of which are a collection of editions matching those owned by Kierkegaard himself. Kierkegaard has also influenced members of the analytical philosophy tradition, most notably Ludwig Wittgenstein, who considered Kierkegaard to be "the most profound thinker of the [nineteenth] century. Important information about 's background, historical events that influenced Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855), and the main ideas within the work. The pseudonyms are best understood by analogy with characters in a novel, created by the actual author to embody distinctive worldviews; it is left to the reader to decide what to make of each one. Many of Kierkegaard's earlier works from 1843–1846 were written pseudonymously. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Like the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), whose system he would severely criticize, Kierkegaard entered university in order to study theology but devoted himself to literature and philosophy instead. Søren Kierkegaard dies. The article also detailed the controversy around his funeral. Kierkegaard predicted his posthumous fame, and foresaw that his work would become the subject of intense study and research. The work translated was Two Minor Ethical-Religious Essays (French: En quoi l'homme de génie diffère-t-il de l'apôtre? In between, he broke his engagement with Regine Olsen, thus initiating the second major collision of his life. [19], The first translation of Kierkegaard into French was published in 1886 by Johannes Gøtzsche, with a preface by the theologian Hans-Peter Kofoed-Hansen. It is also clear that this crisis triggered a period of astonishing literary productivity, during which Kierkegaard published many of the works for which he is best known: Enten-Eller: et livs-fragment (1843; Either/Or: A Fragment of Life), Gjentagelsen (1843; Repetition), Frygt og baeven (1843; Fear and Trembling), Philosophiske smuler (1844; Philosophical Fragments), Begrebet angest (1844; The Concept of Anxiety), Stadier paa livets vei (1845; Stages on Life’s Way), and Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript). Salinger and John Updike. Kierkegaard's influence on continental philosophy increased dramatically after the First and Second World Wars, especially among the German existenz thinkers and French existentialists. 2 Kierkegaard's trips to Berlin took place in 1841, 1843, 1845, and 1846. He bewilders me without working the good effects which he would in deeper souls". [19], Subsequent translations of Kierkegaard into French include those produced by Paul Petit, who produced a French translation of the Concluding Unscientific Postscript in 1941, as well as a translation of the Philosophical Fragments, published posthumously in 1947. The startling prayer life of Søren Kierkegaard Karen Wright Marsh February 28, 2020 Unfinished sketch of Søren Kierkegaard, by his cousin Niels Christian Kierkegaard, c. … Schrempf's first translations appeared in 1890 and by 1922, he had completed translations of the entire set of Kierkegaard's published writings. Kierkegaard's works were not widely available in the couple of decades after his death. It has not yet been discussed publicly by anyone, but it surely will be. Most notably are American theologians Paul Tillich and Lincoln Swain, and philosophers from Europe -- Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Miguel de Unamuno -- and from Russia Nikolai Berdyaev. Not only did Kierkegaard inherit his fathers melancholy, his sense of guilt and anxiety, and his pietistic emphasis on the dour aspects of Christian faith, but he also inherited his talents for philosophical argument and creative imagination. Kierkegaard had intended to cease writing at this point and become a country pastor. His translations have been criticised repeatedly as unreliable: Heiko Schulz referred to them as "repeatedly revised, highly idiosyncratic, and at times breathtakingly free renditions of the Kierkegaardian texts". Kierkegaard's sociological work Two Ages: The Age of Revolution and the Present Age critiques modernity. [20], In 1856, the Bavarian-born conservative politician and historian Joseph Edmund Jörg wrote an article discussing religious movements and events in Scandinavian history. There was an anonymous German review of Philosophical Fragments published in 1845 which subsequent scholarship believes was written by Beck. Heidegger was to acknowledge Kierkegaard’s masterly exploration of the human condition as one of ‘Angst’. [18], Kierkegaard was first mentioned in a French publication in 1856 in Revue des deux mondes (English: Review of the Two Worlds) in an article detailing the state of Danish politics and culture which described his influence on the Danish church as having "bewildered many minds and troubled many weak or fearful consciences". "[16] To some degree, Kierkegaard can be seen as one of the few philosophers to whom the simple analytic/continental divide does not fully apply. Soren Kierkegaard was the first philosopher to actually consider that he wrote about Existentialism. [5] Karl Popper referred to Kierkegaard as "the great reformer of Christian ethics, who exposed the official Christian morality of his day as anti-Christian and anti-humanitarian hypocrisy". Søren Kierkegaard entered the University of Copenhagen in 1830. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (/ ˈ s ɔr ən ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɑr d / or / ˈ k ɪər k ə ɡ ɔr /; Danish: [ˈsɶːɐn ˈkiɐ̯ɡəɡɒːˀ]) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic, and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. Kierkegaard was influenced early in life by the devoutly religious teachings of his father which concentrated on Christ's suffering. Søren Kierkegaard “The function of prayer is not to influence God, but rather to change the nature of the one who prays.” ... For any feedback on the site or any questions on Kierkegaard’s writings or translations you might have, you’re welcome to use the contact form. [4] Paul Feyerabend's epistemological anarchism in the philosophy of science was inspired by Kierkegaard's idea of subjectivity as truth. They may have been contemporaries, but they developed their ideas in tremendously different circumstances and cultural backdrops. Kierkegaard is also seen as an important precursor of postmodernism. Ludwig Wittgenstein was immensely influenced and humbled by Kierkegaard,[5] claiming that "Kierkegaard is far too deep for me, anyhow. His religious And today I’d like to talk about the major Darwin publishes Origin of Species. Kierkegaard was a saint. Type: BOOK - Published: 1965 - Publisher: Get Books. Unamuno refers to Kierkegaard in his book, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOstenfeldMcKinnon1972 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKierkegaard2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMatustikWestphal1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFUpdike1997 (, Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments. Darwin publishes Origin of Species. He is widely regarded as the founder of Christian psychology and of existential psychology and therapy. Although in the last year of his life he wrote, “I dare not call myself a Christian,” throughout his career it was Christianity that he sought to defend by rescuing it from cultural captivity, and it was a Christian person that he sought to become. Reactions were anything but uniform, and proponents of various ideologies attempted to appropriate his work quite early. Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus, Fordham University. Kierkegaard's Writings IV, Part II: Either/Or Søren Kierkegaard. Biography of Soren Kierkegaard, All Poems of Soren Kierkegaard his/her biography, comments and quotations. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. All references to Kierkegaard’s journals first give numbers in Søren Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers followed by numbers in Søren Kierkegaards Papirer. [6], Kierkegaard had a profound influence on psychology. [18] Sipe, after examining his essay on the suffragette movement and the seducer's diary and their misogynistic content, then pivots towards Kierkegaard's view on the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus and Sarah, the young daughter of Raguel and Edna both of whom Kierkegaard considers to be knights of faith. While a student at the university, Kierkegaard explored the literary figures of Don Juan, the wandering Jew, and especially Faust, looking for existential models for his own life. HE WAS THE FATHER OF EXISTENTIALISM. She later donated most of his writings to the Danish Royal Library where they continue to be stored. It is actually supposed to be by a Kierkegaard who has adopted a pseudonym...."[1]. [2] Since Kierkegaard was raised as a Lutheran,[3] he was commemorated as a teacher in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 11 November and in the Calendar of Saints of the Episcopal Church with a feast day on 8 September. Søren Kierkegaard's influence and reception varied widely and may be roughly divided into various chronological periods. [18] She then states that due to Kierkegaard's rampant use of Pseudonyms one must separate Kierkegaard from his Pseudonyms. history, philosophy Let us take a brief departure from politics to some theological history, shall we? Instead of retiring, he picked a quarrel with The Corsair, a newspaper known for its liberal political sympathies but more famous as a scandal sheet that used satire to skewer the establishment. Kierkegaard influenced 19th-century literature writers as well as 20th-century literature. His father, Michael Pedersen Kierkegaard, was a prosperous but retired businessman who devoted the later years of his life to raising his children. The influence of Kierkegaards father on his work has been frequently noted. Even after acknowledging that he had written these works, however, Kierkegaard insisted that they continue to be attributed to their pseudonymous authors. Or as they're described in the paper as "players in a drama" with Kierkegaard as the director. Buy books by Søren Kierkegaard One exception to this is Anti-Climacus, a pse… What is clear is that this relationship haunted him for the rest of his life. Søren Kierkegaard, in full Søren Aabye Kierkegaard, (born May 5, 1813, Copenhagen, Den.—died Nov. 11, 1855, Copenhagen), Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. Omissions? But at Mynster’s funeral Martensen, who had succeeded to the leadership of the Danish church, eulogized his predecessor as a “witness to the truth,” linking him to the martyrs of the faith; after this Kierkegaard could no longer keep silent. Many 20th-century philosophers, both theistic and atheistic, drew concepts from Kierkegaard, including the notions of angst, despair, and the importance of the individual. In December 1854 he began to publish dozens of short, shrill pieces insisting that what passed as Christianity in Denmark was counterfeit and making clear that Mynster and Martensen were responsible for reducing the religion to “leniency.” The last of these pieces was found on Kierkegaard’s desk after he collapsed in the street in October 1855. [20], The most significant translation work was conducted by Christoph Schrempf, another student of J.T. [14] In America, interest in Kierkegaard was revived from the 1980s onwards, particularly by the American philosopher and curator of the Kierkegaard Library at St. Olaf College Gordon Marino, who has devoted several books and essays to Kierkegaard. Another early mention of Kierkegaard in German is from Johann Georg Theodor Grässe, who included Kierkegaard briefly in an 1848 review of European literature. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Søren Kierkegaard, the nineteenth-century Danish philosopher rediscovered in the twentieth century, is a major influence in contemporary philosophy, religion, and literature. He emphasized that Kierkegaard was for him “the best friend in Denmark”, whose “spirit reached to Søren Kierkegaard’s voluminous works, many of which were pseudonymous, included Either/Or (1843), Fear and Trembling (1844), Philosophical Fragments (1844), The Concept of Anxiety (1844), Stages on Life’s Way (1845), Concluding Unscientific Postscript (1846), Sickness unto Death (1849), and Training in Christianity (1850). Now, less than one year later, he returned her ring, saying he “could not make a girl happy.” The reasons for this action are far from clear. Existentialist philosophy’s core concern is the nature of … Search all of SparkNotes Search. Milan Petkanic, Filozofia , vol. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. [8] Ernest Becker based his 1974 Pulitzer Prize book, The Denial of Death, on the writings of Kierkegaard, Freud and Otto Rank. What the age needs is awakening. Beck. "Kierkegaard and Feminism: A Paradoxical Friendship", On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates, De omnibus dubitandum est: Everything Must Be Doubted, The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress, The Lily of the Field and the Bird of the Air, Three Discourses at the Communion on Fridays, Two Discourses at the Communion on Fridays, The Point of View of My Work as an Author, Thomasine Christine Gyllembourg-Ehrensvärd, Influence and reception of Søren Kierkegaard, Howard V. and Edna H. Hong Kierkegaard Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Influence_and_reception_of_Søren_Kierkegaard&oldid=964735249, Articles to be expanded from December 2015, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 June 2020, at 08:10. The other great Norwegian national writer and poet Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910) was also deeply inspired by Kierkegaard. They had met in 1837, when she was only 15 years old, and had become engaged in 1840. I never forget how God helps me and it is therefore my last wish that everything may be to his honour. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Søren Kierkegaard's influence on twentieth-century thought has been rich and varied. [McGrath, Alister E."The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Thought". Kierkegaard’s life has been called uneventful, but it was hardly that. 1859. His domineering presence stimulated young Søren’s imaginative and intellectual gifts but, as his son would later bear witness, made a normal childhood impossible. Søren Kierkegaard’s influence on the thinking of Karol Nandrásky 27 3. Born on the 5th of May, 1813 in Copenhagen, he was the youngest child of seven to Michael and Ane Kierkegaard. He emphasized that Kierkegaard was for him “the best friend in Denmark”, whose “spirit reached to His father’s stern piety, deep melancholy, and profound sense of guilt greatly influenced Søren’s life and writings. Eric Hamm, Søren Kierkegaard Newsletter, no. Michael Kierkegaard was a deeply mel… In Kierkegaard's native Denmark, the Danish people hosted his 200th anniversary of Kierkegaard's birth in Copenhagen in May 2013.[15]. Deeply inspired by Kierkegaard himself Olsen for posterity an important precursor of postmodernism Emmanuel Levinas, and months... Father on his work has been called uneventful, but it surely will be was Two Minor Ethical-Religious (. Anything but uniform søren kierkegaard influenced and for months Kierkegaard was influenced early in life by the religious. Thus initiating the second major collision of his philosophy, as it influenced the everlastingly. 20Th century saw the revival of his father which concentrated on Christ 's suffering at... 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