Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China having 400,000 items in its permanent collection. Thus, one can see the statues of the famous teachers and educators of the past not too far from those of the courtesans who educated the young men in the other arts. Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. Vaughan, C. Edwin. In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries, as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization, converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China. In the mere six weeks during which the Japanese perpetrated the Nanking Massacre starting on Dec. 13, 1937, an estimated 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were brutally raped and sexually assaulted by the invading soldiers. The City Nanking, China, is a city with a rich history that has played a central role in much of China’s history. On 21 April 1949, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River. The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the … [38][39][40], The Southern Song were eventually exterminated by the Mongols; during their rule as the Yuan dynasty, the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD, as well as in and around major residential areas throughout the city. Amazingly, the story of this atrocityone of the worst in world historycontinues to be denied by the Japanese government. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea. Die Massaker begannen am 13. [132] 13 Middle School, the city's oldest/continuous school grounds in the city.[73]. The city normally held about 250,000 people, but by the mid-1930s its population had swollen to more than 1 million. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. The city is 650 km (400 mi) southeast of Luoyang, 900 km (560 mi) south-southeast of Beijing, 270 km (170 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai, and 1,200 km (750 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing. The Japanese army swept into the ancient city of Nanking (what was then the capital of China), and within weeks, more than … There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. It is believed that Nanjing was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400. The city was razed after the Sui took it over. Southeast University is also among the most famous universities in China and is considered to be one of the best universities for Architecture and Engineering in China. The Nanjing Brocade (南京云锦) is their exquisite product as the cloth for the royal garments such as dragon robes. The Rape of Nanking is one of the most brutal acts of 20th-century genocides of world history that took place in December of 1937. The Ming dynasty drawing Prosperous Nanjing (南都繁会图卷; Nándū Fánhuì Tújuǎn) depicts a vivid market scene bustling with people and full of various sorts of shops. [55], Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time. [71] This systematic mass murder of civilians occurred in Nanjing. Nanjing also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater. Besides, minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the Three Kingdoms period. Nankin Jiken. Koxinga's forces intercepted these letters and after reading them Koxinga may have started to regret his deliberate delays allowing the Qing to prepare for a final massive battle instead of swiftly attacking Nanjing. [29] This marked the first time a Chinese dynastic capital moved to southern China. "梁都之时,城中二十八万户,西至石头,东至倪塘,南至石子冈,北过蒋山,东西南北各四十里。", In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDennerline2002 (, Ho Ping-ti. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections. [21] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing. [7], Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,[8] and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. [111] It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway. aDirect-administered Municipalities. The letter said it reflected the grim situation being felt in Qing Beijing. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. [139], Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[140]. [64], Despite capturing many counties in his initial attack due to surprise and having the initiative, Koxinga announced the final battle in Nanjing in 1659 ahead of time giving plenty of time for the Qing to prepare because he wanted a decisive, single grand showdown like his father succsfully did against the Dutch at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay, throwing away the surprise and initiative which led to its failure. [77] The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. Other events include Nanjing Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival. Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty. And the people are even addressed as 'Nanjing big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative. * Indicates this city has already occurred above. Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou. Jinling cuisine is famous for its meticulous process, emphasizing no added preservatives and its seasonality. Different means of transport constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. Expressways {G+XXxx (National Express, 国家高速), S+XX (省级高速)}: National Highway {G1xx (which starts from Beijing), G2xx (north-south), G3xx (west-east)}: The city also boasts an efficient public transport network, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. [24] According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1, Line S3, Line S7, Line S8 and Line S9. During this boom, Nanjing reputedly became one of the most modern cities in China. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 meters on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 meters spanning the river itself. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. Nanjing, Wade-Giles romanization Nan-ching, conventional Nanking, city, capital of Jiangsu sheng (province), east-central China.It is a port on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and a major industrial and communications centre. Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, the city has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. It is well-known that people in Nanjing like eating radish. From the 1960s to 1980s there were five pillar industries, namely, electronics, automobiles, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. [94] Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00 pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station. Motorways such as Hu–Ning, Ning–He, Ning–Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei, Hangzhou, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”. Instead, Nanjing, as a tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. 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