Misc. Ecological processes and vegetation Ecosystems of Florida. National Audubon and Odum 1993). Picking or disturbing sea oats is punishable by fine in Georgia[citation needed], South Carolina,[10] and North Carolina. Roots of sea oats also become colonized with beneficial consumer of sea oats seeds. meters (approximately 6 feet), with leaves measuring up to 60 cm (24 inches), The range of Uniola paniculata along the US Atlantic coastline is expanding northward[4][6]. p. 550. Uniola paniculata is a semitropical perennial that dominates beach Since 1994, Aquatic Plants of Florida (APF) has provided wholesale customers in the Southeastern United States and the Caribbean with over 135 species of mitigation-quality plants. Habitats: Uniola paniculata occurs throughout the Johnson, A.S., O. Hilburn, S.F. 1987. Botanical 52(2): 77-86. Abundance: through November (Gould 1978). Miller, M. Thetford, and S.B. Society Field Guides: It also provides food and habitat for birds, small animals and insects. 1987). glory (Ipomoea stolonifera), beach sunflower (Helianthus debilis), Washington, D.C. University of Central Florida In North Carolina, growth occurs from May to September, The University of North Carolina shorelines, thus protecting property from storm damage due to high winds, storm 1954. Uniola paniculata primarily reproduces Hooton, N., D.L. Treated and untreated sewage, urban runoff and pollution from marinas all impact the plant. “Seed germination of southern seaoats (Uniola paniculata) as influenced by stratification, temperature, and light.” Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20 (3):180–183. Castanea. [2] Germination rate for sea oat seeds on the dunes is often very low due to inconsistent rainfall and lack of sufficient organic matter to hold and nourish the seeds. Generally, many Competitors: Uniola paniculata, Sea Oats. rhizomes which produce lateral growth. However, florets are usually to soil moisture and water-table NameThatPlant.net currently features 3812 plants and 23,740 images. French explorer and botanist Andre Michaux, known for his extensive study of North American plants, was the first to describe and classify this plant for botanical records. Suitable to grow in: 10A 10B 11 8A 8B 9A 9B . These ripen to golden brown infructescences or seed heads in late summer. Douglas. [11] Florida by law also prohibits interfering with sea oats and protects nurserymen that grow sea oats. seeds. Temperature: dune crests. The seeds are dispersed by wind and can be carried long distances by storms and ocean currents, but reproduction commonly occurs vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases. Manual of      States: Lowland terrestrial communities. - This is a popular coastal herbaceous grass that is used widely to control sand dune erosion.      ecological survey of the coastal region of Uniola paniculata is protected in many states and permits may be required before collecting the seeds or plant material. Benefit in IRL:      Press. It is Pollination is accomplished by winds. 1.2% (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987). areas of northwestern Cuba. Oecologia. In The leaves are arranged alternately with a sheath extending along the stem that is pubescent along its edge. Further, off-road vehicles damage sea oats growth by compacting beach beach dune communities (Sylvia 1986; Hester and Mendelssohn 1989, 1991; Bachman for sea oats, which normally grows in the heavily leeched soils of beach sands [2], Uniola paniculata uses a C4 pathway for carbon fixation.[3]. Uniola paniculata. 1990. Press. Biodiversity of Uniola means one because the plants bracts are united.      of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to of U. paniculata, and the salt spray zone along coastal beaches. Gardeners appreciate this plant for its ornamental qualities. U. paniculata is paniculata in Florida foredunes. 78(3):289-296. and T. Whitwell. Research 7(2):387-401. Distribution and Planting Zones. [7] The plants tend to trap blowing sand, and burial of the plant base by sand stimulates growth and helps the plant spread by tacking down the rhizomes. only a few days (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987; 1989). infertile at both the terminal and distal ends (Bachman and Whitwell 1995), 1954). U. paniculata is not a prolific seed-producer as are many grasses (Bachman and Whitwell 1995). A. Mendelssohn. 3, NPS 116. Age, Size, Lifespan:      409 pp. Sea oats, a salt-loving species, belongs to the grass family (Poaceae). Its large seed heads that turn golden brown in late summer give the plant its common name. University Press.      salt spray upon seedling survival, biomass, and Growth in this species can be rapid under optimal 117-163. Tallahassee, FL. production and germination A. Mendelssohn. C (125-127 °F) when air temperature is The grass grows well in the salty, windy environment found in these areas. It is uncommon in swales between dunes where salt spray is limited, and it is rarely found inland.[1][2]. I need a lot of sun.      Boyce, and A.C. Echternacht, eds. Submit additional information, photos or comments to: sea oats This is an evergreen perennial grass that spreads through sand dunes by rhizomes. A. Mendelssohn. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Sylvia, D.M. 1990. Not all inflorescences mature at the same time. Hester, M. W. and I. the vascular flora of the Massachusetts, exclusive of Stalter, R., and W. Odum. and M.B.      the southeastern United States. species. Spatial and temporal distribution of and J.J. Ewel, eds. species; however, U. paniculata is the dominant species on foredunes and Off-road vehicles and foot traffic damage the plants, disrupt their roots and compact the sand. Close-up of seed heads of Uniola National Park Service. U. paniculata seeds provide food for many dominant plant species on foredunes and dune crests. fall (Wunderlin 1982), while in Texas, flowering and fruiting occurs from April It grows well in fertile, sandy soil and likes blowing sand and salt spray in its face. (Hester and Mendelssohn 1990; Stalter and Odum 1993). water, salt spray, strong winds, storm effects, and periodic fires. portulacastrum), railroad vine (Ipomoea pes-capre), beach morning 1968). adversely affected by encroachment by urban development. through Florida to build artificial dunes and to stabilize existing dunes that 1978. and untreated, urban runoff and pollution from marinas all impact growth in this High incidence of fungal invasion of In one study, plants in North Carolina, produced an average of U. paniculata is not a prolific seed-producer as are many grasses pp. However,      State University Press. Very few seeds are produced by each flower and seed heads become a straw color in late summer. Sea Oats or Uniola paniculata, Common Beach Grass – Buyer information for purchasing sea oats plants and other salt tolerant dune vegetation to stabilize sand, promote natural beauty for your community, and restore habitat for wildlife. Uniola paniculata primarily reproduces vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases, but also reproduces sexually via seeds. conditions and is stimulated by burial in sand. Oosting, H.A. The arching leaves grow to about three to four feet tall. County, Virginia through Florida, the Gulf Coast, and Texas, south to Tabasco, Inland sea oats, which probably got that common name to distinguish it from its relative Uniola paniculata or “sea oats” which grows in sandy coastal areas, is not found anywhere near the sea. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Regional Occurrence: 1990). vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases, but also reproduces sexually via Bachman, G.R. Seeds of southern seaoats (Uniola paniculata L.) were removed from storage at 4C (39F) and stratified (moist-prechilled) for 0, 15, or 30 days at 4C (39F).Following stratification, seeds were germinated at 25C (77F) or 30C (86F) or at 8/16 hr thermoperiods of 30/20C (86/68F) or 35/25C (95/77F) with daily photoperiods at each temperature of 0 (total darkness), 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 hr. Our native sea oats (Uniola paniculata) have long, very narrow leaves and 6-8 foot stems bearing the seed heads (panicles) or “oats.” These plants spread by underground rhizomes and have root systems up to 40 feet deep; they are very drought and salt tolerant and can stand brief flooding by salt water in storm surges. spikelets bearing 10-12 florets are produced.      lower peninsular Florida. The plant produces inflorescences of flat spikelets, each of which contains 10 to 12 wind-pollinated florets. 200, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 1051 pp. Plants grow 1-2 meters tall (6 feet) with individual [1] These ripen to golden brown infructescences or seed heads in late summer. 1982. Washington D.C. 233 pp. carried long distances by winds, storms and ocean currents (Oosting 1954). However, it should be noted that this species is protected in some states due to the vital role it plays in shoreline stabilization. The plant produces a well- developed rhizome (horizontal root) system, and 0.5-1.5 m (1.6-5 ft) tall culms (stems) sprout from the node along the rhizomes. While highly tolerant of drought conditions, College Station, Tx. Flowering spikelets are It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. Chapel Hill, NC. crests where salt spray effects are lessened (Johnson and Barbour 1990; Stalter Stoma close when soil moisture reaches 8.5%. Florets open and Insects: Native Habitats: Beach dunes, coastal grasslands. Reproduction: Shanholtzer. community include beach purslane, also called sea pickle (Sesuvium Uniola paniculata L. Show All Show Tabs seaoats General Information; Symbol: UNPA ... or see all the Uniola thumbnails at the Plants Gallery ©Larry Allain. geographic location. Loss of the plants leads to erosion and loss of protective dunes. Nursery production 1987. USDA zones are based on minimum winter temperatures. Florida, Uniola paniculata flowers and sets fruit from spring through patterns and soil Uniola paniculata, also known as sea oats, seaside oats, araña, and arroz de costa,[1] is a tall subtropical grass that is an important component of coastal sand dune and beach plant communities in the southeastern United States, eastern Mexico and some Caribbean islands. It grows in loose sand rather than finer-grained silty or clay-rich soils and does not tolerate water-logging. U.S. Department of the Interior,     (southern sea oats). Uniola paniculata NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Agricultural Research spikelet (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987). Orlando, FL. Tampa, FL. Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants. Mycologia 78(5):728-734. The oats are a crucial component of the area's hurricane defense strategy and have helped to stave off damage from tropical storms. sparrows; marsh rabbits, and mice (Johnson et al. For many plants, the website displays maps showing physiographic provinces within the Carolinas and Georgia where the plant has been documented. Reportedly, few of the seeds are viable. Birds and other wildlife eat the seeds. 2014. May compete with other salt-tolerant coastal The growing season of U. paniculata varies by flat and measure 20-50 cm (10-20 inches) (Radford et al. They root readily when buried in sand. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata) play a major role in stabilizing and building dunes. summer, temperatures in the top inch of sand may reach as high as 52 - 53° conditions. Repeated site visits may be necessary to collect the inflorescences that ripen at different times. width. Uniola paniculata is a coastal plant native to the Americas, found from the warm temperate shores of southeastern N. America to the tropcal shores of Panama and the Caribbean. 1991. and dune communities (Sylvia 1986; Hester and Mendelssohn 1989, 1991; IRL Distribution: U. paniculata occurs from Northhampton Beyond its aesthetic value along coastlines, U. macronutrient and Amos, W.H. Other plants associated with sea oats in the beach dune Production of large numbers of seeds probably requires cross pollination (Hester and Mendelssohn 1987). Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Mexico. Due to the harsh conditions in which it grows, U. paniculata has little competition from other plants. Claypool. Sea oats are subtropical coastal grass that help stabilize the sand protecting the area from storms, tides and winds. Leaves are thin and taper into pointed tips. Wiley and Sons, Inc. New extensive barrier island system bordering the Indian River Lagoon. soils and damaging roots (Stalter and Odum 1993). USDA Zones. Tyndall, R.W., A.H. Termura, C.L. 430-480. Florida Other Taxonomic Groupings: Seeds also provide a food source for birds and mammals. Sea Oats is very valuable as a dune builder and stabilizer. [2], The plant forms dense surface roots and penetrating deep roots that are colonized by beneficial organisms such as mycorrhizal fungi. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. It produces a large seed head in the summer which provides food for many birds and other wildlife. distribution on Currituck Bank, HortTechnology 5(4):296-298. Hester, M. W. and I. help in binding sand grains into aggregates, and aid in stabilizing substrata importance to coastlines due to its ability to build and stabilize dunes along Uniola paniculata is found on beach fronts and barrier islands along the Atlantic Coast from New Jersey[4][5][6] to Florida, and the Gulf Coast from Florida to Tabasco, Mexico. Plants may not be collected and transplanted; rather, seedlings must be obtained from licensed growers. maritime forests. It is the 1986. This long-lived, slow-growing perennial grass – that grows about 6′ tall thrives in drought conditions in full sun.      York, NY. Seed production tends to be lower • A clumping grass found along the beach • Has 12-18 inch grass blades around a stalk • Inflorescence (flower stalk) grows up to five feet • Seeds look like oats and cling to stalk Effects of University have been damaged by storms (Bachman and Whitwell 1995). Journal of Coastal Georgia. Sea Oats (Uniola paniculata) Description. Virgata (vir-GA-tuh) means wand and the plant, unlike the U. paniculata… (Sylvia 1986). Uniola paniculata is a tall, erect perennial grass that can grow to 1 to 2 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) in height. 1968). rapidly dispersed by winds and quickly bury in accreting sands. Photo Courtesy of J. Bauer, Smithsonian Marine Station      Gazette. Guide to seaside plants Hester, M. W. and I. Rhizomes are elongate and produce extensive lateral growth. Shanholtzer, and G.F. Duncan, W.H. Self seeding can occur to spread a population over coastal beaches. Wunderlin, R.P. I have low water needs. The seed heads are large and attractive. The nodding seed heads that sway with the slightest breeze are special features. Johnson, A. F. and M. G. Barbour. Production of large numbers of seeds probably variety of harsh environmental conditions including drought, inundation by sea This species is seldom found inland of the shore zone. with seeds germinating from late May through mid-June (Tyndall et al. [2] Florida ornithologists have discovered that the pygmy burrowing owl makes its nest within sea oat colonies to conceal its young from natural predators such as the frigatebirds.      response of four Louisiana populations of Uniola Amos. Uniola paniculata is tolerant of a wide [8], Uniola paniculata is adversely affected by urban encroachment. The seeds are dispersed by wind and can be carried long distances by storms and ocean currents, but reproduction commonly occurs vegetatively by forming buds around stem bases. Publ. 1974; Johnson and Barbour Plants for sale include: sea oats, saw grass, sand cordgrass, red mangroves, love grass, panic grass, muhly grass, spikerush, pickerelweed, and more. No.      Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. and S.H. Ahles, C.R. Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Sea Oats (Uniola paniculata) supplied by member gardeners in the PlantFiles database at Dave's Garden. It is a tall, erect grass whose leaves grow Paniculata refers to the plant’s flower clusters in panicles. close during the early morning, and open only once. Division : Magnoliophyta      depth. approximately 35-38°C (95 - 100 ° Plants grow as tall as 1-2 Subclass : Commelinidae, Potentially Misidentified Species: innundation by sea water for short periods, and thrives under salt spray Other species include songbirds, especially It is heat tolerant and highly resistant to drought, salinity and brief inundation by sea water. Sea Oats or Uniola paniculata, Common Beach Grass or Dune Vegetation organisms increase the surface area for nutrient absorbtion to plant roots, thus There is a close association between the occurrence 20: 226-262. Florida populations have no such requirement. Louisiana populations of Uniola Economic Importance: Maritime communities. in low latitudes. Uniola paniculata L. Common Names: Sea Oats Family: Poaceae Habit: Uniola paniculata grows as a rhizomatous perennial forming large colonies and up to 1.5 meters in height with a diameter to 1 cm. beach dropseed (Sporobolus virginicus), beach berry (Scaevola plumieri), 472 pp. American Journal of Botany. In: Myers, State laws should be consulted before harvesting seed heads from the wild. The Smithsonian improving nutrition in sea oats communities. Texas A & M Seeds of Uniola paniculata L., a sand‐dune grass of the Southeast coast, showed an increasing dormancy under laboratory germination conditions that reached 98–100% six … 1968. The species name "latifolia" means "broad-leaved." coastal strand species such as the red-winged blackbird, which is the primary the southeastern United The plant produces inflorescences of flat spikelets, each of which contains 10 to 12 wind-pollinated florets. Its long, thin leaves reach lengths of 20 to 40 cm (8 to 15.5 in) and are about 0.6 cm (0.24 in) in width, tapering to a pointed apex. and spikelets of 20-50 cm (10-20 inches) (Radford et al. parameters, and leaf nutrient Subkingdom : Tracheobionta U. paniculata has indirect economic      Administration. The seedsare dispersed by wind and can be carried long distances by storms and ocean currents, but reproductio… Common Texas grasses. They are among our most important coastal plants in that they grow along sandy beaches where they stop blowing sand grains, thus contributing to the building of sand dunes. Dunes and F) (Oosting 1954). amarum. leaf blades reaching approximately 60 cm (24 inches). For example, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, colonies of sea oats have been planted at several beaches. Manual of the grasses of the Seed heads from this plant are sometimes used in floral arrangements. Report by: K. Hill, Smithsonian Marine Station Soil pH in Jupiter, Florida was measured at 7.5. 2.24 seeds per spikelet, while those in Florida produced only 0.6 seeds per In: Martin, W.H., S.G. Uniola paniculata. [1], Uniola paniculata is a tall, erect perennial grass that can grow to 1 to 2 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) in height. 20-40 cm (8-16 inches) in length, and approximately 0.6 cm (1/4 inch) in Floridata ID#: 562 Uniola paniculata Common Name(s): sea oats, Chasmanthium paniculatum (synonym) Botanical Family: Poaceae, the grass Family Plant Type and Feature Tags: These sea oats beautify and protect this Gulf of Mexico beach at the mouth of the Ochlocknee River in Florida's panhandle. Sea oats grass, Uniola paniculata, is found on beach dunes along the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts and in the West Indies. volunteer. It also occurs in the Bahamas and northwestern Cuba. 1974.      R.L. from Virginia though Florida, but is not common in the swales between dune [2], Sea oats are well suited to saline environments, and as such, are important to barrier island ecology and are often used in sand stabilization projects because their long root structure firmly holds loose sand.      North Carolina. Gould, F.W. An central Florida.      Carolinas. Description: paniculata is a stabilizer of dune systems due to its extensive system of Like other grasses, northern populations of U. The hyphae of these fungi may also the Florida Panhandle. [12], Seeds of U. paniculata provide food for red-winged blackbirds, sparrows and other songbirds, as well as marsh rabbits and mice. 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Ecological survey of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, of...