In modern languages it is known by the equivalents of "East Sea", "West Sea", or "Baltic Sea" in different languages: At the time of the Roman Empire, the Baltic Sea was known as the Mare Suebicum or Mare Sarmaticum. In the 13th to 16th centuries, the strongest economic force in Northern Europe was the Hanseatic League, a federation of merchant cities around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. "[3], Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør; in the Great Belt at Nyborg; and in the Little Belt at its narrowest part then Fredericia, after that stronghold was built. North of the Aland Haf a ridge defines the southern edge of another depression, the Bothnian Sea, which in turn is separated from the most northerly division, the Gulf of Bothnia, by a ridge across the narrow Quarken or Kvarken Strait. Older, wood-based shipwrecks such as the Vasa tend to remain well-preserved, as the Baltic's cold and brackish water does not suit the shipworm. There is a combination of both freshwater and marine species that call the Baltic Sea their home. Cruise the Baltic Sea. Baltic Sea White Sea Ship canal Neva River Lake Onega The aim of the present paper is to review current knowledge about the water exchange. The White Sea–Baltic Canal (Russian: Беломо́рско-Балти́йский кана́л, Byelomorsko-Baltiyskiy kanal, BBK), often abbreviated to White Sea Canal (Belomorkanal) is a ship canal in Russia opened on Wednesday 2 August 1933. [36], The Baltic Sea is the world's largest inland brackish sea. Navigation is interrupted by drifting ice from about the middle of November to the beginning of May, though the port of HernOsand has been known to remain open during a whole winter. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names. They include the major rivers of north Europe, such as the Oder, the Vistula, the Neman, the Daugava and the Neva. The tourism industry surrounding the Baltic Sea is naturally concerned about oil pollution. English m.) The largest river-basin included in it is that of the Neva in the east, and next in size come the Vistula and the Oder in the south. There is, however, a distinctly marked annual rise and fall due to meteorological influences having a mean range of about 11.4 cm. You can see where they join together and clash with each other, but the water will mix quite easily. [27] For example, the common starfish and shore crab, two species that are very widespread along European coasts, are both unable to cope with the significantly lower salinity. The color is not due salinity, says Ryan Carlyle , BSChE, Subsea hydraulics engineer. At the bottom of the Bornholm Basin, deeper than 80 m (260 ft), the temperature typically is 1–10 °C (34–50 °F), and at the bottom of the Gotland Basin, at depths greater than 225 m (738 ft), the temperature typically is 4–7 °C (39–45 °F).[27]. Many of the countries neighboring the Baltic Sea have been concerned about this since a major oil leak in a seagoing tanker would be disastrous for the Baltic—given the slow exchange of water. The Baltic Sea is often cited as the world’s largest brackish inland water body. That it must be a periodic stream, because the discharge of the rivers into the Baltic varies with the season of the year. The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain. It is connected with the North Sea by the Kattegat and Skagerrak. In Sweden, the sea was then referred to as Mare Nostrum Balticum ("Our Baltic Sea"). The difference between the outflow and the inflow comes entirely from fresh water. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/bri/b/baltic-sea.html. Edited by Lindsey Hughes, 105–117. In the northernmost reaches of the Bothnian Bay, ice usually stays until late May; by early June it is practically always gone. Also Credner, Die Entstehung der Ostsee (Leipzig, 1895); G. de Geer; Om Skandinaviens niveif orandringar under quartarperioden (Stockholm, 1888); R. Sieger, Seeenschwankungen and Strandverschiebungen in Skandinavien (Berlin, 1893); O. Pettersson, "Review of Swedish Hydrographic Research," Scottish Geographical Magazine (1894) N. Ekholm, Om klimatets andringar i geologisk och historisk tid. The Kattegat is bounded on the north by the Skagerrak, a deep inlet of the North Sea that separates southern Norway from northern Jutland. However, the processes that are of major importance are quite well known. The canal was finished in 1895, but later widened, and links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel-Holtenau. In Peter the Great and the West: New Perspectives. Consequently, the surface area and the depth of the sea are diminishing. Geographers widely agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland. Destructive waves, probably caused by distant earthquakes, called Seebciren (cf. The water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea involves many processes, some more investigated and understood than others. Serum concentration of sodium is around 0.8–0.85 %, and whitefish 150,000 sq )! Known by a variety of names tides is about eight millimeters per year into the North Sea Amsterdam! Baltic and similar terms to denote the region during October freeze during a normal,. 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