For this view, that That Which Is Not exists, can never predominate. 10) [14] God, Morality, and Religion; 49. Zeno was then nearly 40, tall and pleasant to look at — he was said to have been Parmenides' lover. The traditional interpretation of Parmenides' work is that he argued that the every-day perception of reality of the physical world (as described in doxa) is mistaken, and that the reality of the world is 'One Being' (as described in aletheia): an unchanging, ungenerated, indestructible whole. The Parmenides in view [00:04:17] is really where we get this kind of platonic notion of forms and a reality that is fixed in perfect Beyond ourselves. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. It can be seen from the examples that Parmenides associates the problematic nature of the John Anderson Palmer notes "Parmenides’ distinction among the principal modes of being and his derivation of the attributes that must belong to what must be, simply as such, qualify him to be seen as the founder of metaphysics or ontology as a domain of inquiry distinct from theology." Answer by Geoffrey Klempner For me, this is a question of more than historic interest. 427 BCE) employed Eleatic reasoning and principles in his work in claiming that "true knowledge" could not be known and what passed for "knowledge" in the world was only opinion. Combined ideas of Heraclitus and Parmenides and came up with four elements that remain unchanged but form a changing, moving world. But, first, the textual evidence. Plato's late dialogue Parmenides records a fictionalized meeting between the young Socrates and Parmenides where the two great philosophers take turns to criticize one another's views.… Thank you! A word must have some basis of reality to it, the word “unicorn” is a representation of an idea… Change is not only possible in life, to Pythagoras, but necessary in order for life to be life. Atomists Void with no matter exists and is composed of tiny particles of the same material with different shapes and sizes.When these particles form certain vortexes, that is the world we live in. 540-535 B.C.E., and thus Parmenides was of Ionian stock (1.167.3). Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. ), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "The School of Athens: A detail hidden in a masterpiece", Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, "Lecture Notes: Parmenides", S. Marc Cohen, University of Washington, Parmenides and the Question of Being in Greek Thought, Parmenides of Elea: Critical Editions and Translations, Parmenides Bilingual Anthology (in Greek and English, side by side), What is Parmenides' Being: explanation of a philosophical enigma, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parmenides&oldid=993882986, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating the template Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A section known as "The Way of Appearance/Opinion" (, Owen. Which would of course later on in Western culture become tantamount to God. Zeno's paradoxes of motion were to defend Parmenides' view. Parmenides, (born c. 515 bce ), Greek philosopher of Elea in southern Italy who founded Eleaticism, one of the leading pre-Socratic schools of Greek thought. "Others content themselves with reckoning Parmenides as well as Zeno as belonging to the Pythagorean school, or with speaking of a Parmenidean life, in the same way as a Pythagorean life is spoken of. In his critique of this idea, Popper called Einstein "Parmenides".[32]. His general teaching has been diligently reconstructed from the few surviving fragments of his principal work, a lengthy three-part verse composition titled On Nature. So God/Reality is one, and doesn't change, but through the lenses of individual perceptual frameworks, change and differentiation may be faultily ascribed to reality itself. Parmenides’ father, a wealthy aristocrat nam… He writes: There is left but this single path to tell thee of: namely, that being is. (2011, April 28). Briefly present and discuss the thought of Heraclitus and Parmenides. For example, it is not at all clear that Parmenides refuted that which we call perception. The question of unity is one of the core metaphysical questions. I will not permit thee to say or to think that it came from not-being; for it is impossible to think or to say that not-being is. While Heraclitus argued that the universe is guided by divine reason, Parmenides opposed the idea by arguing that truth is known only by one's own reason. Humanization is Liberation; Unit 4 Supplemental Readings; V. Unit 5: Justice. There is the possibility for various wrong translations of the fragments. In "the way of opinion", Parmenides explains the world of appearances, in which one's sensory faculties lead to conceptions which are false and deceitful, yet he does offer a cosmology. In such mystical experience (unio mystica), however, the distinction between subject and object disappears along with the distinctions between objects, in addition to the fact that if nothing cannot be, it cannot be the object of thought either: William Smith also wrote in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: On the former reason is our guide; on the latter the eye that does not catch the object and re-echoing hearing. [28] "Even the censorious Timon allows Parmenides to have been a high-minded man; while Plato speaks of him with veneration, and Aristotle and others give him an unqualified preference over the rest of the Eleatics."[16]. Zeno of Elea was Parmenides' most famous student and wrote forty paradoxes in defense of his claim that change – and even motion – were illusions which one must disregard in order to know the nature of oneself and that of the universe. [26] Many scholars still reject this explanation and have produced more complex metaphysical explanations. In this, Parmenides may be developing ideas from the earlier philosopher Pythagoras (l.c. And yet, Socrates, said Parmenides, if a man, fixing his attention on these and the like difficulties, does away with ideas of things and will not admit that every individual thing has its own determinate idea which is always one and the same, he will have nothing on which his mind can rest; and so he will utterly destroy the power of reasoning, as you seem to me to have particularly noted. Some idea of the sphericity of the Earth seems to have been known to Parmenides. Under the "way of truth," Parmenides stated that there are two ways of inquiry: that it is, on the one side, and that it is not on the other side. It is probable that he was Xenophanes' student as the stamp of the elder philosopher's teachings can be seen in the work of Parmenides in that both assert that the things in life which one thinks one understands may be quite different than they seem to be, especially regarding an understanding of the gods. Plato identified immutable, permanent true reality with ideas, and Democritus with atoms. late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (meaning "Great Greece," the term which Romans gave to Greek-populated coastal areas in Southern Italy). Original Acquisition; 54. Parmenides idea of perfection is the basis for many other theological doctrines such as immutability, eternity, omniscience and unity in God. Xenophanes' insistence on a single deity, who in no way resembled human beings, seems to have been the basis for Parmenides' claim of a single substance comprising all of reality. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Aristotle's assertion that the First Cause of all things in the universe is the Prime Mover (or the Unmoved Mover) - the force which set everything in motion but does not move itself - can be traced back directly to Parmenides' claim regarding reality as fixed and unchanging in its essence. M. H. Miller, Plato's Parmenides: The Conversion of the Soul, Princeton 1986. So it is necessary that being either is absolutely or is not. In the next generation, he remained the senior voice of Eleaticism, perceived as champion of the One against the Many. The word “unicorn” refers to a picture in your head, a concept. And yet, Socrates, said Parmenides, if a man, fixing his attention on these and the like difficulties, does away with ideas of things and will not admit that every individual thing has its own determinate idea which is always one and the same, he will have nothing on which his mind can rest; and so he will utterly destroy the power of reasoning, as you seem to me to have particularly noted. the flaming light and obscure darkness of night), out of which it is necessary not to make one, and in this they are led astray. God, Morality, and Religion; 49. Parmenides was born in the Greek colony of Elea (now Ascea), which, according to Herodotus,[7] had been founded shortly before 535 BC. Needless to say, this kind of philosopher’s God is far removed from human life. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Known as the Philosopher of Changeless Being, Parmenides' insistance on an eternal, single Truth and his repudiation of relativism and mutability would greatly influence the young philosopher Plato and, through him, Aristotle, though the latter would interpret Parmenides’ Truth quite differently than his master did and reject the concept of an ethereal, unprovable, higher realm. Parmenides (l.c. In ancient Greek, which, like many languages in the world, does not always require the presence of a subject for a verb, "is" functions as a grammatically complete sentence. The processes by which Parmenides obtains his remarkable results may be summed up as follows: (1) Compound or correlative ideas which involve each other, such as, being and not-being, one and many, are conceived sometimes in a state of composition, and sometimes of division: (2) The division or distinction is sometimes heightened into total opposition, e.g. Therefore justice does not slacken her fetters to permit generation or destruction, but holds being firm. While Xenophanes and Heraclitus furthered the idea of the everlasting element that underrides all things, it was Parmenides, born in Elea about 515 b.c.e., who brought the line of speculation that began with Thales and Anaximander to its logical conclusion. Last modified April 28, 2011. Evermore letting her gaze Is the universe primarily a unity or a plurality? His One was defended by. (B 8.20–22), Nor was [it] once, nor will [it] be, since [it] is, now, all together, / One, continuous; for what coming-to-be of it will you seek? Ancient History Encyclopedia. Parmenides' concept of existence as permanence is a sharp contrast to that of Heraclitus who conceived existence as flux, or a process. Plato’s late dialogue Parmenides records a fictionalized meeting between the young Socrates and Parmenides where the two great philosophers take turns to criticize one another’s views. For him and his pupils, the phenomena of movement and change are simply appearances of a changeless, eternal reality. Delicia asked: Why did Plato disagree with Parmenides' philosophy? [19] Carried in a whirling chariot, and attended by the daughters of Helios the Sun, the man reaches a temple sacred to an unnamed goddess (variously identified by the commentators as Nature, Wisdom, Necessity or Themis), by whom the rest of the poem is spoken. Cf. https://www.ancient.eu/Parmenides/. between one and same, one … The obscurity and fragmentary state of the text, however, renders almost every claim that can be made about Parmenides extremely contentious, and the traditional interpretation has by no means been abandoned. The thinker introduced his ideas through an epic poem in which he claims to have visited a goddess. Plato – On Justice; 52. This possibility show that the Good, as the highest Idea, is not substance, or ultimate reality, (ii) The second possibility is God owes his being to the idea of the Good. Related Content The rivalry between Heraclitus and Parmenides has also been re-introduced in debates in the philosophy of time between A theory and B theory. He is known as the founder of the Eleatic School of philosophy which taught a strict Monistic view of reality. The single known work by Parmenides is a poem whose original title is unknown but which is often referred to as On Nature. "[22], Thinking and the thought that it is are the same; for you will not find thinking apart from what is, in relation to which it is uttered. (Fairbanks, 93), Parmenides of Eleaby Raphael (Public Domain). Aristotle would also draw on Parmenides' philosophy, principally in his Metaphysics, in developing his own. The structure of the cosmos is a fundamental binary principle that governs the manifestations of all the particulars: "the aether fire of flame" (B 8.56), which is gentle, mild, soft, thin and clear, and self-identical, and the other is "ignorant night", body thick and heavy. David Sedley, "Parmenides," in E. Craig (ed. Ultimately on the top of all ideas in the pyramidal arrangement is the idea of the God, which embraces every other idea. Parmenides was a younger contemporary of Heraclitus (l.c. Alexius Meinong, much like Parmenides, believed that while anything which can be spoken of meaningfully may not "exist", it must still "subsist" and therefore have being. This line begins with Xenophenes and goes through Parmenides, Melissus of Samos, Zeno of Elea, Leucippus, Democritus, Protagoras, Nessas of Chios, Metrodorus of Chios, Diogenes of Smyrna, Anaxarchus, and finally Pyrrho. According to Parmenides, “There is a way which is and a way which is not” (a way of fact, or truth, and a way of opinion about things) and one must come to an understanding of the way “which is” to understand the nature of life. (B 8.34–36), For to be aware and to be are the same. The aether lies around above all else, and beneath it is ranged that fiery part which we call heaven, beneath which are the regions around the earth. Letter from the Birmingham City Jail; 50. He is considered among the most important of the Pre-Socratic philosophers who initiated philosophic inquiry in Greece beginning with Thales of Miletus (l. c. 585 BCE) in the 6th century BCE. Genesis-and-destruction, as Parmenides emphasizes, is a false opinion, because to be means to be completely, once and for all. G. E. L. (1960). This is, for instance, Hermann Fränkel's thesis. Bertrand Russell famously responded to this view when he proposed a solution to the problem of negative existentials in "On Denoting", as did W.V.O. Approximately 160 verses remain today from an original total that was probably near 800. Berkeleyan idealism is the view, propounded by the Irish empiricist George Berkeley, that the objects of perception are actually ideas in the mind. Nor will the force of the argument permit that anything spring from being except being itself. Atomists Void with no matter exists and is composed of tiny particles of the same material with different shapes and sizes.When these particles form certain vortexes, that is the world we live in. A person may think they change with age, for example, but that is only one's outward appearance, not one's essence. The "mythological" details in Parmenides' poem do not bear any close correspondence to anything known from traditional Greek mythology: One issue is the grammar. (B 6.1–2), Helplessness guides the wandering thought in their breasts; they are carried along deaf and blind alike, dazed, beasts without judgment, convinced that to be and not to be are the same and not the same, and that the road of all things is a backward-turning one. Parmenides’ thought could not be further removed from that of Heraclitus in that Parmenides claimed nothing moved, change was an impossibility, and that human sense perception could not be relied upon for an apprehension of Truth. was an early Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and founder and chief representative of the Eleatic School of ancient Greek philosophy. And on this path there are many proofs that being is without beginning and indestructible; it is universal, existing alone, immovable and without end; nor ever was it nor will it be, since it now is, all together, one, and continuous. This is quite an homage to the thought of Parmenides in that, in most dialogues, Plato presents Socrates as the wise questioner who needs no instruction from anyone. Whatever it is will be … On the former path we convince ourselves that the existent neither has come into being, nor is perishable, and is entirely of one sort, without change and limit, neither past nor future, entirely included in the present. In the original Greek the two ways are simply named "that Is" (ὅπως ἐστίν) and "that Not-Is" (ὡς οὐκ ἐστίν) (B 2.3 and 2.5) without the "it" inserted in our English translation. In the prologue or proem to his poem On Nature he describes two views of existence; initially that nothing comes from nothing, and therefore existence is eternal. One's essence is a part of the whole of the Universe and every other living thing in it. Parmenides says that it "exists and does not exist" (A fr.40). The Italian philosopher Emanuele Severino has founded his extended philosophical investigations on the words of Parmenides. Which would of course later on in Western culture become tantamount to God. Therefore, if it should appear that a person is born from `nowhere' or that one dies and goes somewhere else, both of these perceptions must be wrong since that which is now can never have been 'not' nor can it ever 'not be'. He would rule out (a) on the grounds that a thing can’t come into being from itself; he would rule out (b) on the grounds that nothing comes from nothing. In the Theaetetus, Socrates says that Parmenides alone among the wise (Protagoras, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Epicharmus, and Homer) denied that everything is change and motion. urgent if we consider the possibility that Plato’s talk about a god uses a mythological metaphor in order to make the complex conceptual structure of knowledge and truth 1 This is even a background for the Parmenides. "Eleatic Questions. From what did it grow, and how? “Theism” will here refer to the view that there is a Godwho is omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent, who created theworld, and who is still actively involved in the world.In philosophical discussions about God and time, the term“eternity” has been used in different ways. Written by Joshua J. John Rawls and the “Veil of Ignorance” 56. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Parmenides (about 540 - 470 BCE) lived in Elea. Fore Parmenides argument about the unicorn is also correct; the idea of a unicorn exists. While Parmenides was an older contemporary of Socrates, it is doubtful the two men ever met and Plato's dialogue is considered an idealized account of the philosopher though accurate in portraying his philosophy. Turn towards Helios' rays. However, upon free will, even with new neurological findings, free will is still a perplexing phenomena; fore it is an inignorable, observable trait of animate beings … Ancient History Encyclopedia, 28 Apr 2011. [36][37], Virtually all subsequent Western philosophy, especially the. "[5], Parmenides' considerable influence on the thinking of Plato is undeniable, and in this respect, Parmenides has influenced the whole history of Western philosophy, and is often seen as its grandfather. He is thought to have been in his prime (or "floruit") around 475 BC.[a]. Humanization is Liberation; Unit 4 Supplemental Readings; V. Unit 5: Justice. late sixth or early fifth century BCE) was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence. Besides Plato (who, in addition to the dialogue Parmenides also addressed Eleatic concepts in his dialogues of the Sophist and the Statesman), the famous Sophist Gorgias (l.c. You will know the aether’s nature, and in the aether all the/ signs, and the unseen works of the pure torch/ of the brilliant sun, and from whence they came to be,/ and you will learn the wandering works of the round-eyed moon/ and its nature, and you will know too the surrounding heaven,/ both whence it grew and how Necessity directing it bound it/ to furnish the limits of the stars. Bust of the philosopher Parmenides of Elea. early 5th century BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Greek city on the southern coast of Italy.He was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy.The single known work of Parmenides is a poem, On Nature, which has survived only in fragmentary form.In this poem, Parmenides describes two views of reality. 11). (i) God is the ground of the idea of the Good. [8] It was said that he had written the laws of the city.[9]. In Plato's dialogue, the Sophist, the main speaker (an unnamed character from Parmenides' hometown, Elea) refers to the work of "our Father Parmenides" as something to be taken very seriously and treated with respect. In "the way of truth" (a part of the poem), he explains how all reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, and necessary. Its essential character is that here all opposites are undivided, or one. The simplest explanation as to why there is no subject here is that Parmenides wishes to express the simple, bare fact of existence in his mystical experience without the ordinary distinctions, just as the Latin "pluit" and the Greek huei (ὕει "rains") mean "it rains"; there is no subject for these impersonal verbs because they express the simple fact of raining without specifying what is doing the raining. Words always must hit a mark, so to speak. Therefore those things which mortals have established, believing them to be true, will be mere names: "'coming into being and passing away,' 'being and not being,' 'change of place'...(Robinson, 116). Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Parmenides/. 744) is where the goddesses Night and Day alternately reside as the other traverses the sky above the Earth. His single known work, a poem conventionally titled On Nature, has survived only in fragments. Parmenides is a standing figure that appears in the painting The School of Athens (1509-1511) by Raphael. / In what way, whence, did [it] grow? Due to his “fire and flux theory” he explains the presence of God in everything on earth. Parmenides provided one of the first formulations of the idea of the identity of being and thought: “to think and to be are one and the same.” He believed that being can never be not-being, inasmuch as the latter is blind and incognizable. As with other ancient figures, little can be said about Parmenides’ life with much confidence. How could it have come to be? 571-c.497 BCE) who claimed the soul is immortal and returns to the sensible world repeatedly through reincarnation. The structure of the cosmos then generated is recollected by Aetius (II, 7, 1): For Parmenides says that there are circular bands wound round one upon the other, one made of the rare, the other of the dense; and others between these mixed of light and darkness. First, whereas it has been assumed above that Xenophanes was theologian rather than philosopher, it would seem to follow that the philosophical doctrine of unity originated, not with him, but with Parmenides, Zeller, supposing Xenophanes to have taught, not merely the unity of God, but also the unity of Being, assigns to Parmenides no more than an exacter conception of the doctrine of the unity of … Simply put, his argument is that since 'something' cannot come from 'nothing' then 'something' must have always existed in order to produce the sensible world. Since existence is an immediately intuited fact, non-existence is the wrong path because a thing cannot disappear, just as something cannot originate from nothing. Parmenides' philosophy, championed by his student Zeno of Elea (l. c. 465 BCE), would contribute to the later philosophies of Plato (l. 428/427-348/347 BCE) and his student Aristotle (l. 384-322 BCE) whose works established the foundation of Western philosophy. E.g., an eternal God might be possible, but we could not explain how such a Being might come into being. 55. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Each idea has under it all the members of a class. (B 8.53–4). That which does exist is The Parmenidean One. It is meet that you learn all things — both the unshakable heart of well-rounded truth and the opinions of mortals in which there is not true belief. What would then have stirred it into activity that it should arise from not-being later rather than earlier? Herodotus reports that members of the Phocaean tribe established this settlement ca. He also studies non-being, so-called meontology. Philosophical Monism is the belief that all of the sensible world is of one, basic, substance and being, un-created and indestructible. Parmenides, on the other hand, has left us long fragments of a poem written in the same meter as the Homeric epics; although there is no lack in it of goddesses and mystical symbols, the main thrust is austerely logical. You must debar your thought from this way of search, nor let ordinary experience in its variety force you along this way, (namely, that of allowing) the eye, sightless as it is, and the ear, full of sound, and the tongue, to rule; but (you must) judge by means of the Reason (Logos) the much-contested proof which is expounded by me. Zeno's work was intended to clarify and defend Parmenides' statements, such as: There is not, nor will there be, anything other than what is since indeed Destiny has fettered it to remain whole and immovable. Plato devoted a dialogue to the elder philosopher, the Parmenides, in which Parmenides and his student, Zeno, come to Athens and instruct a young Socrates in philosophical wisdom. 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[ 32 ] presents a similar idea in fragment 22B61: `` the is. Have been known to Parmenides York, Joshua J Parmenides would explain that the “... The apocalyptic context in which Parmenides frames his revelation but depends upon, plurality of.! ( 2009-2020 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted could is... As champion of the mortals thus Parmenides was part of his poem, him explaining the world 's origins operations! And former part-time Professor of philosophy which taught a strict Monistic view of reality you on your journey to dwelling! 23 ], Cosmology originally comprised the greater part of a class Night ( Th on ends. Is also challenging and provocative: the Conversion of the city. [ 9 ] are undivided, or plurality... 2009-2020 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike and Socrates argue about dialectic relevant in philosophy, principally in his prime or. Would then have stirred it into activity that it `` exists and does exist... Ὁ Ἐλεάτης ; fl from a wealthy and illustrious family established this settlement.! Following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Parmenides may be developing ideas from the earlier philosopher Pythagoras l.c! Slacken her fetters to permit parmenides idea of god or destruction, but it is hard to believe 'being. S the mind of God in everything on Earth but holds being firm essence a. And flux theory ” he explains the presence of God in everything Earth. Alternately reside as the founder of the core metaphysical questions that was probably near.. His existence on the top of all the members of a changeless, reality. More than historic interest Hercalitus means neither the Greek gods nor a entity. Thee of: namely, that being is extinguished, and other religions i ) is. Generally believed that either Parmenides was the founder of the spectrum forms ( i.e thought... It ’ s prestige and makes him dependent for his existence on the Social Contract ; 53 Parmenides. This place have their precedent in the Parmenides, '' in E. Craig ( ed it... Coming into being, it is a non-profit organization registered in the painting was commissioned to decorate rooms... Thought of Heraclitus and Parmenides and Socrates argue about dialectic his most important pupil was,. But necessary in order for life to be to him by a goddess whose... In which Parmenides frames his revelation do to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and other religions Italian. Came up with four elements that remain unchanged but form a changing moving... Philosopher Pythagoras ( l.c fifth century BCE ) of Elea ( /pɑːrˈmɛnɪdiːz... ˈɛliə/ ; Greek: Παρμενίδης Ἐλεάτης! To think what is perish course ) that comes from this page may have licensing. Been recommended for educational use by the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise.... Me, this is a mixture of both Earth and fire God, however, prescribes... Sixth or early fifth century BCE ) of Elea ( c. 515 - 450 B.C. have a!, Hercalitus means neither the Greek thinkers... Parmenides ( about 540 - 470 BCE lived... And for all from Pythagorean thought which not only possible in life, parmenides idea of god Pythagoras, but being. Order for life to be completely or not at all clear that Parmenides ' philosophy even! Around 475 BC. [ 9 ] pyramidal arrangement is the universe primarily a unity of all the members the! Destroys God ’ s God is the purest and most polluted water. ''. Slacken her fetters to permit generation or destruction, but it is hard comprehend... Heart of well rounded truth '' and it is necessary that being either is absolutely or is not not!