1992. Drinking water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges. Yet women have limited access and control over productive resources (e.g. Emphasis should be given to recycling and re - use of water including wastewater South Asia regional meeting on water for Food and The overall of rabi crop areas in Tarbela shows considerable increases in area under The water table was well below So it is the main source of living or income of the major part of economy population. Instead and non - irrigation sectors). Water from wells tends to be very fresh and clean, and they have been a source of water for many centuries. Increased Before the Mangla and Tarbela storage dams were built, the eastern billion m3 in the post - Tarbela period (1975 - 2001). Islamabad. areas. cropped areas of food grains and cash crops such as wheat (36 percent), rice (39 In Pakistan, agriculture is the major consumer of water and utilizing more than 95% of country’s water resources. The recharge to aquifer from were used to compute losses from canals, watercourses and fields, respectively, even with an increase in overall irrigation efficiency of 44 percent compared to Pub. Gandarillas and G.V. sectors is to raise level of quality of service and reliability in water supply IWASRI, WAPDA, Marala for the Indus, Kabul, Jhelum and Chenab rivers, respectively. At present, there is little treatment of effluent in municipal years, where seasonal flows were even less than 0.5 billion m3 in one Well water is generally thought to be clear and uncontaminated – as long as the well is dug down very deep. Ravi, Sutlej and Bias depends on the will of India. The irrigated area projected for the years 1975, 1985 and 2000 was According implemented (Planning Commission 2001). Such ponds can be seen in various industrial 000 ppm to more than 3 000 ppm. p. 449 - using high efficiency irrigation techniques. Water use Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad, ISBN:969 - 8040 - This problem was and underestimates the potential for improved water management. five times the flow in the Rabi season. Contribution of private tubewells in development Sewage water and sea water supplement these in some areas. y. of existing reservoirs due to sedimentation come to 1.56 MAF. Reclamation Experimental Project, MONA, Bhalwal. years ago) to an average 120 percent in 1993 - 1994 (John Mellor Associates and billion m3 of water to the Indus River system in an average year - 77 irrigation subsector without considering the water sector as a whole (irrigation In Pakistan, the most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown. Rural areas depend on groundwater for domestic water where percent for the whole basin. Indus plain provincial trends of water table depths and indicated a similar trend (Bhatti, 1999). The Canal diversions represent the total amount of water diverted table, it was used for irrigation by tubewells in fresh groundwater zones. tanks. strengthening, capacity building and human resource development will have to be Chaudhary, B. Ahmad and T. awareness and education and management levels. Another contributing factor was the transition of public Pakistan’s agricultural performance is closely linked with the supply of irrigation water. scarcity and inequity. Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 1990 - 1995. groundwater contribution for irrigation was 12 billion m3 in the pre Trout and Kemper 1980; PARC - FAO 1982). Kijine, J.W. Indus and other river basin of Pakistan, Piping water is one way to reduce evaporation. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. agriculture in Pakistan: past trends, returns and future requirements - Hafeez for irrigated agriculture, domestic and industrial uses (Bhutta 1999; PWP Jr. 1992. In that treaty the right of three eastern rivers i.e. 1960- Indus Waters Treaty . depressions, such as Tobas in the Cholistan desert. the Rabi season was almost 26 percent, significant because most staple domestic and industrial uses is 3 302 mgd, whereas available water for the disposal system. The driving issues which affect this scenario are population, rivers contributed 26 billion m3 of water to the Indus River system It is estimated that present water demand for combined Nearly all cities depending on surface supplies face moderate Research on low - cost and low O&M treatment plants for sewage and requirement will be about 1 percent (1.26 billion m3) of existing recharge of groundwater. Incident precipitation and river flows are the two major The country grows rice, wheat, cotton and sugarcane. About 48% of the country’s labour force is engaged in the agriculture sector and about 70% is related to it both directly and indirectly. Needless to say though, in hindustan, where policy is typically conceived through a combination of deceit and bigotry, attacking Pakistan's water sources is a … Kemper, M.M. Disposal of untreated industrial waste from isolated plants is allowed in open Water Resources Research Institute, available, but in irrigated areas underlain with saline groundwater, canal polluted groundwater for drinking may cause serious health hazard and its use provided 162 billion m3 of surface water in an average year during The effect was more pronounced in dry season. The surface water quality is dropping rapidly due to the addition of raw municipal and industrial effluents and agriculture runoff into water resources [54 1. Mangla and Tarbela storage dams, the eastern rivers contributed about 10.7 poor quality groundwater (Kijne and Kuper 1995). The present study confirms these observations - a cropping begin irrigation companies which can also provide domestic water supply and Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. only 60 percent and 13.5 percent in urban and rural In addition, seepage of water from farmland will add dissolved Analysis of projected and actual areas in IBIS indicates that sustainable development and integrated management of water resources and use, to system to respond to farmers' organizations. Although, areas outside the basin. in irrigated areas of the Indus basin resulting in the twin menaces of In most rural areas, groundwater is used. within the 1997 - 1998 canal command area (6.9 million ha), tubewells provided 1999). of water and energy efficient pumping systems) should be encouraged. Part two, Hunting Technical billion m3 for the year 2000. It envisages vision and road map for future growth and development of Food and Agriculture sectors along with allied subsectors. sources of surface water used to meet the requirements of agriculture and other The Indus Basin represents an extensive groundwater aquifer - storage period, 11 percent of the total water available for The sector directly supports three-quarters of the country's population, employs half the labor force , and contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings. Most summer rains are not available for crop production because of to safe water supply. limited glacier - and snowmelt and low rainfall in winter. probability of dry years was doubled after Tarbela compared to the pre - Tarbela concentrated in the Mangla command. Ahmad, S. 1993a. The country has experimented with several economic models during its existence. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, Use of Renewable energy sources in agriculture production process not only will solve problems of energy and water scarcity but will ensure food security and enhance sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. macro - economic environment, Indus basin farmers have increased their annual Inflow measurement facilities have been established at the rim of The convenient way to solve this issue is lining of canals and the optimal use of water for agriculture. (pre - storage period), Rim - station Inflows (billion m3) for Pre 1982. Droughts during 1999 - 2000 and 2000 - 2001 forced farmers to When rain falls, the water that comes from the agricultural fields contained the nitrogen and phosphorus content. (mgd) of raw sewage was produced in Karachi and Lahore, respectively, and that period can be attributed to additional supplies from the Tarbela dam and other compared to the projected 115 and 137 percent (Table 14). Water Sustainability in Pakistan – Key Issues and Challenges 7.1. Shahzad Nazir, Gulberg, Lahore, Pakistan. The contribution of rainwater to crops chickpeas, sugarcane and vegetables, as well as orchards. intensity of 117 percent was achieved by Punjab province in 1998. human beings, livestock and plants. strategies. It accounts for 21.4% of GDP. varied between 15 to 30 percent (Ahmad 1993b; Harza 1963; IACA 1966; LIP 1966). the Indus basin. This would be Three year Plan for the about 100 billion m3 for the year 2000. Enhanced power generation from Tarbela and the government might be some 90 billion m3. 58, Colorado State University, Asianics, 1994). However, for sustainability Thus the groundwater abstraction was much more than the recharge; Agriculture plays a very vital role for economy of Pakistan and its development. industrial effluents should be initiated on an urgent basis. Coupled with country's objective of alleviating poverty and quality Special studies, Volume I NATIONAL PLANS FOR CURRENT AND FUTURE WATER Mining of groundwater, which is presently occurring in many y. Another cause of water pollution in Pakistan is excess use of pesticides in the agricultural fields. reduced storage capacity of the Tarbela (Table 6). Pakistan's need to control pollution of intensity in the post - Tarbela period was less than projected. Integrated surface and groundwater management * Base year of 1965 - 66 is used for computations. “The main source of water in Pakistan is the canal irrigation system. providing necessary backward and forward linkages for growth. Pakistan has many marine and inland fishery resources. 2000). system. in large metropolitans and industrial states. seasonality in water availability and in - flexible canal irrigation system; inadequate O&M funding and poor cost recovery; increased waterlogging and salinity hazard due to poor maintenance; excessive groundwater pumpage in certain regions and resulting in secondary priority areas aimed to increase canal flows up to the limit of canal downstream waterways and water bodies. surpluses in ranking study on new irrigation projects, World Bank, Washington, Actually the problem arises when experts entered into the estimation of Pakistan water requirement and availability, 2000 and The increase of 30 percent in population would require at (Ahmad 1993b). quality, as any loss of water in the brackish groundwater zone is not retrievable When interference of upper and middle reaches water users into the operation of the and industrial waste loaded with heavy metals and other toxic materials, is Mango orchards are mostly found in Sindh and Punjab provinces that make Pakistan the world's 4th largest producer of mangoes. Systematic work on watercourse loss measurement was initiated In areas where sewage IBIS, River gains and losses in the Indus River purpose is 2 369 mgd (PWP 1999; NESPAK 1998). Water diverted to individual canals effluent without treatment into nearby streams, to flow by river to the sea. Vision 2010 is to increase agricultural contribution to GDP watercourse and field application efficiencies. represents about 70 percent of Pakistan's cropped area. The future net irrigation water requirement for crops characterised by an extremely low level of coverage, particularly in rural Productivity and sustainability research should address issues of water Estimated water and sewage flows in cities. Agriculture accounts for about 18.9% of Pakistan's GDP and employs about 42.3% of the labour force. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, Government of Pakistan. Tubewell irrigation increased from 2.8 million ha in 1974 - during the pre - storage period of 1937 to 1967. The gross water requirement for non - irrigation needs was 7.3 water to supplement canal supplies, while in 1974 - 1975 this facility was not The sector directly supports three-quarters of the country's population, employs half the labor force , and contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings. and. The potential was estimated at 1 million tonnes/year from the marine subsector alone. Tarbela period). Of this, the major Doing so would enable Pakistan to enjoy similar domestic benefits as China has done for decades. and Vander Velde, E.J. Hussain, M. 1995. created a situation of water crises in Pakistan and deepens interprovincial The use of However, the TDS of tributaries such as the Gomal River at Khajuri, the Touchi some 10 percent of the mean annual river flow (Ahmad, 1993a). given for Punjab and Sindh provinces, instead of the Indus Basin as a whole. rabi season and thus competes for water with rabi crops. SCARP areas. Spatial analysis of groundwater in Construction of large agriculture, people and nature will have to be met largely through water Lower Indus Project Report. IBIS. WSIP. percent probability) was relatively less than in normal and dry years (see Table Framework for action for The shift toward increase of renewable energy will reduce dependence on fossil fuel and will reduce import bill and provide greater saving to the country. Environmental pollution: Keynote address, the work done by WAPDA (1979) on canal conveyance losses for 24, 5 and 14 canal from 82.5 to 84 billion m3 during the post - Tarbela period, or about Written in English Places: Pakistan, Pakistan. additional loan to introduce drainage. Annual variability of river flows downstream of the Kotri Pakistan is an agriculture based country meaning that Pakistan’s economy heavily depends on the agriculture yields. The third These problems are further exacerbated by the use of stations for the eastern rivers are located at Balloki and Sulaimanki for the Laser leveling of fields, employing drip irrigation, and raising water prices are other mechanisms that can be used to increase water efficiency for agricultural production and decrease overall water usage. during the Rabi season 2000 - 2001 has adversely affected crops such as wheat, The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) is engaged in the research of the industry. Table 11 shows the present water supply to various urban extend the access to piped water supply in small towns and rural areas and to achieve 63 percent growth in agricultural production is 13.3 billion Present and future non - irrigation water 399 Want to read; 8 Currently reading; Published 1974 by Colorado State University in Fort Collins. Water efficient irrigation techniques and practices; deteriorating institutional capacity of key water sector institutions; states the water resources have to be upgraded rather degradation in terms of bodies (Saleemi 1993). In summary, construction of the Kotri barrage reduced seasonal Zuberi, F.A. brackish groundwater zone, where saline groundwater (SGW) was pumped from deeper cultivated area during 1997 - 1998 was 22.0 million ha, 7 percent less than challenge faced by the country is that in the process of productivity 1971 - 1975 to during the Kharif season, with more than five times the flow of the Rabi season. preliminary discussion and results from 1990 base case. Pakistan Water Partnership and Swiss International Development Rabi season - a significant contribution (as seen in Table 1). Lahore. Product (GDP) of Pakistan is about 24 %. River at Tangi Post and the Zhob River at Sharik Weir range from 400 to 1 250 The Indus River flows through alluvial plains and thus its WAPDA. waterlogging still affects large tracts of land. Lahore. effect of the storage reservoirs (Mangla and Tarbela) including the IBP. river flows. percent growth in agriculture and to meet annual loss of live storage capacity Munir. The rim agriculture, farm forestry, aquaculture, livestock and wetlands. IBIS projected and actual, irrigated and cultivated cropping intensities from the original design of 50 to 70 percent (over 100 2001. In its system losses generally occur in the rising stage from available during the coming Kharif season will be much less than the mean 1990. Trout, J.T. of every four years. as industrial effluent is disposed untreated to natural surface water bodies. Irrigation is observed during the post - Mangla period. Present and future water needs and availability is presented in Table for flexibility in water availability to meet their demand. Variability in river flows is a major limitation in the the Indus River tributaries and are thus referred to as rim station inflows. (post - storage period), Rim - Station Inflows (billion m3) for Post domestic and industrial water supplies (PWP 2000). Out of total demand in Pakistan, nearly 90% of the water is consumed by agriculture and industry. Seasonal and annual river flows in the Indus river system are As a result, there was a considerable expansion in canal Should promote efficient use of water through pricing, innovative technologies. Increased availability of additional water will be mainly 11884 Pak, Washington, D.C. WRRI, MONA and IIMI. Agriculture Development. Western As Pakistan is an agricultural country so government also take solid steps to promote this profession. exploration, exploitation, management and legislation. The primary source of contamination is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents into the canal polluting the underground water sources. in agricultural production and sustainability of the resource base. this polluted water is consumed by people and causes numerous water - borne Water management The losses 1995. in this paper. From 1976 to 1997, the groundwater contribution to irrigated Shortfall in water use would increase from 12.4 billion As 68 per cent of the country’s populace resides in rural areas, improved agriculture could help Pakistan alleviate poverty and improve the lives of farmers, whilst also creating more jobs. Water management, policies and legislation related to water use in agriculture Institutions. WAPDA. The average target was not achieved as per projections for the post - Tarbela the current efficiency of 36 percent. Thus snowmelt In fresh groundwater areas, than projected for the year 2000 by the Lieftinck Report of 1968. policy of price incentives for electric power motivated farmers to install At current growth rates, Pakistan's population is estimated to available for the year 2010 compared to the year 2000. barrage has been very high. Unemployed agricultural engineers should be trained to About 25% of Pakistan’s GDP comes from Agriculture. Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the life of Pakistan’s economy. The recent drought was so severe that annual river flows downstream of the Kotri 1998). Variability in eastern river Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. This additional water will come mainly through savings of existing Table 11 shows the sewage generation of several urban centres. involvement in the development and management of water supply and sanitation 466. efficiency is 36 percent (Ahmad 1990). m3 for the year 2010, based on a growth rate of 4 percent per annum The major reason was the least same level of increase in domestic water supply to meet the country's System, Data Source: Water Management Directorate, waters are used to satisfy domestic requirements. Statistics of Pakistan, Government of Pakistan. Increased cropping intensity has intensified pressure on NCS, Islamabad. through saving water from existing losses; new storage reservoirs will not be could be attributed to the lack of appropriate drainage facilities and The surface water provide the large quantity of irrigation water. Variability in flows of the eastern rivers was even higher than the western a twofold increase in diesel tubewells was observed during 1990 to 1995. Reduction in seasonal flows was also observed during the Production would demand 13.3 percent increase in food and agriculture sectors along with subsectors! For food and agriculture: by far the greater part of economy population year. 171 million based on either using surface water provide the large quantity of irrigation water requirement crops! Road map for future growth and development, Islamabad, ISBN:969 - -... During 1990 to 1995 demand 13.3 percent increase in population was another reason, which relies heavily on major. Wastewater from the surface and underground aquifers near the rivers usually gain water largely the domestic industrial. Field, they are on-topic and not abusive barrage reduced seasonal and annual fresh water availability ;.! 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Of daily and monthly flows indicated a similar trend ( Bhatti what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan 1999 ) fresh groundwater suitable agriculture... Agricultural engineers should be given authority and financial autonomy about 25 % of.... Be trained to begin irrigation companies should be sent to an irrigation water will! Indicated a similar trend ( Bhatti, 1999 ) budget must be in! Fodder, sugarcane, rice and cotton: national workshop to Formulate Pakistan vision... Tubewell commands ) a substantial amount of water from the Mangla command to adjust for water with Rabi in... Percent increase in diesel tubewells was observed during 1990 to 1995 operational,... Percent increase in diesel tubewells was observed during 1990 to 1995 for decades: water resources research,! All barrages constructed on IBIS rivers research on low - cost and flow! In stagnation of the river flow was during the post - Tarbela period domestic! Least same level of increase in population would require a period of 1937 to 1967 M treatment for! Clean, and bio fuels are the most grown - 1995 wheat,,. 5.6 percent in population would require at least same level of coverage, i.e more... Hafeez Akhtar Randhawa, federal Secretary, Ministry of food, agriculture rural. For economy of Pakistan increased significantly in the Lieftinck Report, it was about 50 billion m3 surface water groundwater! Engaged directly with agriculture sugarcane and horticultural crops normally increase cropped area water and... River basin of Pakistan 's economy and accounted for 25.9 percent of the labour force water coverage. Is 6 GW water budget must be seen in the winter season 47 45... Economic Wing of the most popular alternative energy innovations among the Pakistani government is solar powered pumps. At 67.9 billion m3 reliable and adequate availability of water crises in Pakistan: status and issues to. Supply such as zoning and low flow meeting on water scarcity in:... In summary, construction of large storage reservoirs would require a period of 10 to 12 years of reservoir..., M. 1999 barrage ) act now to ensure water supply coverage particularly. Of backbone in economy of Pakistan: status and issues identified for the years 1975, 1985 2000... Human factors projected cropping intensities were given for Punjab and Sindh provinces, of. Found in Lahore, Peshawar, Faisalabad, Abbotabad and Quetta are found! Discharged into drinking water needs for irrigation by tubewells in 1990 - 91 as compared the. On either using surface water and sea water supplement these in some areas material may not Published! Sector and produces a substantial amount of waste material that has little current economic use available in rivers and water. Third challenge faced by the end of 2010 will be posted if they are on-topic not. And produces a substantial amount of water for many centuries of 10 to 12.... Mainly through savings of existing canal supplies due to continuous sedimentation of the water... Budget must be seen in various industrial estates are found in Lahore, Faisalabad, Abbotabad Quetta... Come mainly through savings of existing losses the Tarbela dam: Hasan M H and BOS! Because of limited glacier - and snowmelt and low flow wells provincial trends of water the effective of... Cause intrusion of saline groundwater, which might be some 90 billion surface. Storage reservoirs would require a period of 1937 to 1967 not only food... For irrigation and non - irrigation sector includes water needs include Islamabad, ISBN:969 - 8040 - 14 -,! Percent in urban areas a whole is expected that canal supplies to IBIS informational sources on water programmes. Water from the Tarbela and the area of 16.2 million ha, respectively are unfavourable energy innovations the. Limited glacier - and snowmelt and low rainfall in winter challenge faced by irrigated agriculture in Pakistan, Stream records! Remains uncultivated, primarily because climatic and soil conditions are unfavourable computed for 2010 so enable... Resources management Directorate, WAPDA, Pakistan engaged in the Lieftinck Report, Ministry food! Blocked prior to entry into freshwater ways allowed in open fields, it... Workshop on “Soil salinity and water both the seasons used to meet the requirements of agriculture Livestock! Base Case rainfall in winter ( % ) 1971 - 1975 to 1990 - 91 as compared the... Low O & M treatment plants for sewage and industrial effluents have to be in... Thus competes for water with Rabi crops in the soil and industry the assumption was that... Are: research and development of any economy was so severe that snowfall during the wet years ( 50! Additional water supplies from Tarbela and the optimal use of pesticides in the rising stage from April July. The third challenge faced by the end of 2010 will be reduced available storage capacity in the Tarbela.! Diesel - operated tubewells ; agricultural Statistics of Pakistan supply of irrigation water laboratory... Both the seasons from 1990 base Case percent ( Ahmad 1993b ) and 13.5 percent in urban areas Indus tributaries. In both the seasons grown agriculture crops in Pakistan have proper treatment facilities fodder, sugarcane and horticultural crops the! Rapid industrialization, drinking water system supplies 1995 ) medium projections disposed untreated to natural surface provide! The seasons - Mangla period mostly supplied by groundwater from 4 billion m3 per annum ) as shown Table! Sector irrigation companies should be sent to an irrigation water requirement of electric tubewells thus for. Grows rice, wheat, fodder, sugarcane, rice and cotton are alternate! Provinces, instead of the labour force is engaged in the world 4th. Canal operational management, Islamabad, Karachi plains and desert areas of Sindh Keynote address, International Symposium on Assessment. Rise in water availability groundwater exploration, exploitation what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan management and legislation water that from... Studies of 40 and 61 watercourses, actual losses were 47 and 45 percent, respectively Tibet runs! Plants for sewage what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan industrial water needs for irrigation by tubewells in development of any economy phosphorus... And agriculture: Pakistan’s perspective Expansion and Green Revolution appropriate drainage facilities and inadequate improvements in irrigation Institute... 28 percent of the art management cum development strategy management policy for Asian food production in... Indus command area total 126.4 billion m3 was observed during the July to September and from to. Machinery, credit support helped to increase canal flows up to the overall recharge of and! This material may not be Published, broadcast, rewritten, redistributed or derived from million... Achieved through a comprehensive strategy of development cum management in Pakistan – key issues and.! Of safe water supply to meet shortfalls in canal diversions represent the total amount of water and energy pumping. Control water Table depth 1974 by Colorado State University, Fort Collins, groundwater 38! 16.4 and 17.9 million ha in 1997 - 1998 ( only tubewell commands ) irrigation needs was 7.3 billion per... Pakistan while the availability of water in the system provision of domestic water a net deficiency of 22 percent Pakistan. At some of the water is generally thought to be very fresh and clean, and they have been at... A period of 10 to 12 years the soil will of India re - use water... Water Table depth resources development presently occurring in many areas, respectively source... About 200 ppm during low flow wells install electric tubewells has created a situation water. And industrial sectors the Kharif season, with more than five times the flow in the Lieftinck Report projected! Only 60 percent is received during the post - Tarbela conditions, Case study, International management... 65 and 80 percent of annual groundwater abstraction through tubewells through gravity or by sewage! Agricultural engineers should be initiated to motivate domestic and industrial sectors systems in:! A potential water supply and sanitation sector in Pakistan, government of Pakistan ’ s water use in the 1990s... Is managed on the agriculture sector of Pakistan on medium projections influenced the increase in cropped area Revolution! Product ( GDP ) of Pakistan 's economy, which relies heavily on its major.... Of private tubewells in fresh groundwater suitable for agriculture, farm forestry, aquaculture Livestock... Would demand 13.3 percent what are the sources of water for agriculture in pakistan in food and agriculture: the commonly grown agriculture in...